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Chapter 3. Alcohol and Other Drugs. Chapter Outline. The Global Context: Drug Use and Abuse Sociological Theories of Drug Use and Abuse Frequently Used Legal and Illegal Drugs Societal Consequences of Drug Use and Abuse Treatment Alternatives Strategies for Action: America Responds

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Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Alcohol and Other Drugs


Chapter outline

Chapter Outline

  • The Global Context: Drug Use and Abuse

  • Sociological Theories of Drug Use and Abuse

  • Frequently Used Legal and Illegal Drugs

  • Societal Consequences of Drug Use and Abuse

  • Treatment Alternatives

  • Strategies for Action: America Responds

  • Understanding Alcohol and Other Drugs


What is a drug

What is a Drug?

  • The term drug refers to any chemical substance that

    • has a direct effect on the user’s physical, psychological, and/or intellectual functioning

    • has the potential to be abused

    • has adverse consequences for the individual and/or society


Drug use and abuse around the world

Drug Use and Abuse Around the World

  • Globally, 3.0% of the world’s population—185 million people—reported using at least one illicit drug in the previous year.

  • The lifetime prevalence of illicit drug use varies from 46% of the adult population in the United States, to 36% in England, 26% in Italy, 18% in Poland, and 9% in Sweden.


U s social policy results of a national survey 2001

U.S. Social Policy: Results of a National Survey, 2001


U s social policy results of a national survey 20011

U.S. Social Policy: Results of a National Survey, 2001


Reporting drug use 2003

% Reporting Drug Use, 2003


Reporting drug use 20031

% Reporting Drug Use, 2003


Drug abuse

Drug Abuse

  • Occurs when acceptable social standards of drug use are violated, resulting in adverse physiological, psychological, and/or social consequences.

  • chemical dependency - Drug use is compulsive; users are unable to stop.


Question

Question

  • Did you ever use marijuana during your senior year in high school?

    • Yes

    • No


Structural functionalist perspective

Structural Functionalist Perspective

  • Drug abuse is a response to weakening of societal norms (anomie).

  • Drug use is a response to the absence of a perceived bond between the individual and society.


Conflict perspective

Conflict Perspective

  • Drug use is a response to political, social and power inequality.

  • Drug use is an escape from alienation from work, friends and family and frustration caused by inequality.

  • Most powerful members of society influence the legal definition of drug use.


Symbolic interactionist perspective

Symbolic Interactionist Perspective

  • If the label “drug user” is internalized drug use will continue or even escalate.

  • Drug users learn motivations and techniques of drug use through interaction with others.

  • Symbols may be used for political and economic agendas (e.g. D.A.R.E. Campaign against drugs).


Biological theories

Biological Theories

  • Genetics may predispose an individual to alcoholism.

  • Some individuals are physiologically “wired” to get more pleasure from drugs thanothers.


Psychological theories

Psychological Theories

  • Some personality types are more susceptible to drug use.

  • Positive reinforcement: drug use results in pleasurable experience.

  • Negative reinforcement: drug use reduces pain, anxiety, loneliness and boredom.


Question1

Question

  • In the past year, have you had more than 5 alcoholic drinks in a sitting?

    • Yes

    • No


Alcohol

Alcohol

  • Alcohol is the most widely used and abused drug in America.

  • The National Survey on Drug Use and Health reports that 119 million Americans age 12 and older consumed alcohol at least once in the month preceding the survey.

    • 6.8% reported being heavy drinkers

    • 22.6% were binge drinkers.

    • 10.9 million current users of alcohol are 12 to 20 years old.


Question2

Question

  • I believe that underage drinking is an important social problem in our society.

    • Strongly agree

    • Agree somewhat

    • Unsure

    • Disagree somewhat

    • Strongly disagree


Alcoholism

Alcoholism

  • The chances of being alcohol dependent also increase if an individual’s parents:

    • are alcoholics

    • drink

    • have a positive attitude about drinking

    • use discipline sporadically


Question3

Question

  • How often do you go to a bar or tavern?

    • Daily/Weekly

    • Monthly/Yearly

    • Never


Gss national data

GSS National Data


Tobacco

Tobacco

  • 30% of those ages 12 and older are smokers.

  • In 2003, 14.4% of the 12- to 17-year-old population reported smoking, a slight decrease from the previous year.

  • In 2003, 3.6 million youths between the ages of 12 and 17 reported past-month use of a tobacco product.


Marijuana

Marijuana

  • Most commonly used and trafficked illicit drug in the world.

  • There are more than 14.6 million current marijuana users, representing 6.2% of the U.S. population age 12 and older.


Marijuana1

Marijuana

  • According to the 2004 Monitoring the Future survey, 45.7% of twelfth graders have used marijuana or hashish at least once in their lifetime.

    • 34.3% used it in the last year, and 19.9% used it in the last month.


Cocaine

Cocaine

  • Cocaine, made from the coca plant, has been used for thousands of years.

  • According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

    • 34.9 million people, 14.7% of the U.S. population 12 and older, have tried cocaine.


Cocaine1

Cocaine

  • 42% of high school seniors surveyed in the 2004 Monitoring the Future study indicated that getting powdered cocaine is “fairly easy” or “very easy.”

  • Crack, made by boiling a mixture of baking soda, water, and cocaine, is one of the most dangerous drugs to surface in recent years.


Question4

Question

  • The most commonly used and most heavily trafficked illegal substance in the world is:

    • cocaine.

    • methamphetamines.

    • heroin.

    • marijuana.


Answer d

Answer: D

  • The most commonly used and most heavily trafficked illegal substance in the world is marijuana.


Of parents reporting household turbulence by alcohol dependence or abuse 2002

% Of Parents Reporting Household Turbulence, by Alcohol Dependence or Abuse: 2002


Costs of drug use and abuse

Costs of Drug Use and Abuse

  • Alcoholics are more likely to separate or divorce.

  • 25% to 50% of domestic abuse cases involve abusers with substance abuse problems.

  • According to a 2004 report of the Office of National Drug Control Policy, the total economic cost of drug use was more than $180 billion in 2002..

  • Alcohol-related car accidents account for 18% of the more than $100 billion in U.S. auto insurance payments.


Question5

Question

  • Which drug use is the leading preventable cause of deaths in the United States?

    • cigarette smoking

    • alcohol use

    • heroin

    • cocaine


Answer a

Answer: A

  • Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of deaths in the United States.


Chapter 3

Reasons for Not Receiving Treatment Among Individuals, Who Did Not Receive Treatment and Felt They Needed Treatment: 2003


Federal drug control spending by function fiscal year 2006

Federal Drug Control Spendingby Function, Fiscal Year 2006


Legalization benefits

Legalization: Benefits

  • Affirms the rights of adults to make informed choices.

  • Money from drug taxes could be used to benefit all citizens.

  • Would result in decreased drug prices and decreased crime.

  • Drugs would be regulated and safer.


Decriminalization benefits

Decriminalization: Benefits

  • Promotes a medical rather than criminal approach to drugs.

  • Would encourage users to seek treatment.


Decriminalization and legalization risks

Decriminalizationand Legalization: Risks

  • Would be construed as government approval of drug use.

  • Not all drugs would be decriminalized; illegal trafficking would still exist.

  • Would require costly bureaucracy to oversee drug use/production.


Quick quiz

Quick Quiz


Chapter 3

1. If the government reduced its control over various illegal drugs that would be termed:

  • legalization.

  • deregulation.

  • decriminalization.

  • interdiction.


Answer b

Answer: B

  • If the government reduced its control over various illegal drugs that would be termed deregulation.


Chapter 3

2. Which substance is the most widely used and abused drug in the United States?

  • nicotine

  • cocaine

  • marijuana

  • alcohol


Answer d1

Answer: D

  • Alcohol substance is the most widely used and abused drug in the United States.


Chapter 3

3. A conflict theorist would argue that the war on drugs:

  • all of these choices.

  • unfairly targets minorities.

  • has resulted in the changing of definitions and labels.

  • contributes to society by providing thousands of jobs for people.


Answer b1

Answer B

  • A conflict theorist would argue that the war on drugs unfairly targets minorities.


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