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Biogenic Emissions of Organics: Global Budgets and Implications. Colette L. Heald Russ Monson, Mick Wilkinson, Clement Alo, Guiling Wang, Alex Guenther Scot Martin, Qi Chen, Jose Jimenez, Delphine Farmer. IGAC Conference, Annecy, France September 11, 2008.

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biogenic emissions of organics global budgets and implications

Biogenic Emissions of Organics:Global Budgets and Implications

Colette L. Heald

Russ Monson, Mick Wilkinson, Clement Alo, Guiling Wang, Alex Guenther

Scot Martin, Qi Chen, Jose Jimenez, Delphine Farmer

IGAC Conference, Annecy, France

September 11, 2008

isoprene controlling air quality and climate
ISOPRENE: CONTROLLING AIR QUALITY AND CLIMATE

C5 H8: Reactive hydrocarbon emitted from plants (primarily broadleaf trees)

Annual global emissions ~ equivalent to methane emissions

CLIMATE

Depletes OH = ↑ CH4 lifetime

+ OH

O3

AIR QUALITY

Beijing

IPCC, 2007

meteorological and phenological variables controlling isoprene emission
METEOROLOGICAL AND PHENOLOGICAL VARIABLES CONTROLLING ISOPRENE EMISSION
  • LIGHT
  • Diffuse and direct radiation
  • Instantaneous and accumulated

(24 hrs and 10 days)

  • TEMPERATURE (Leaf-level)
  • instantaneous and accumulated

(24 hrs, 10 days)

T

L

T

PAR

AMOUNT OF VEGETATION

 Leaf area index (LAI)

  • LEAF AGE
  • Max emission = mature
  • Zero emission = new

LAI

SUMMER

Month

SOIL MOISTURE

 suppressed under drought

[Guenther et al., 2006]

isoprene in the future
ISOPRENE IN THE FUTURE

NPP ↑ Temperature↑

2000

2100

Methane lifetime increases

[Shindell et al., 2007]

SOA burden ↑ > 20%

[Heald et al., 2008]

Surface O3 ↑ 10-30 ppb

[Sanderson et al., 2003]

Isoprene emissions projected to increase substantially due to warmer climate and increasing vegetation density.

 LARGE impact on oxidant chemistry and climate 

a missing factor isoprene emission inhibition by co 2
A MISSING FACTOR: ISOPRENE EMISSION INHIBITION BY CO2

Long-Term growth environment: gene adaptation

Dependent on ambient CO2

Short-term exposure: changes in metabolite pools and enzyme activity

Dependent on intercellular CO2

Empirical parameterization from plant studies [Wilkinson et al., GCB, accepted]

To what degree does this CO2 inhibition counteract predicted increases in isoprene (due to T and NPP)?

2100 a1b co 2 inhibition compensates for temperature increase
2100 (A1B): CO2 INHIBITION COMPENSATES FOR TEMPERATURE INCREASE

Decrease when CO2 inhibition

included

Isoprene emissions in 2100

696 TgC/yr

 31%

Dotted=2000

Solid=2100

See that ↑in T activity factor ~ compensated by ↓ in CO2 activity factor

Global Model: NCAR CAM3-CLM3 (2x2.5)

conclusion isoprene emissions predicted to remain constant
CONCLUSION: ISOPRENE EMISSIONS PREDICTED TO REMAIN ~CONSTANT

MEGAN

MEGAN with CO2 inhibition

696

Eisop

(TgCyr-1)

523

508

479

2000

2100 (A1B)

* With fixed vegetation

Important implications for oxidative environment of the troposphere…

unless co 2 fertilization is strong
UNLESS…CO2 FERTILIZATION IS STRONG
  • CLM DGVM projects a 3x increase in LAI associated with NPP and a northward expansion of vegetation.
  • [Alo and Wang, 2008]
  • Isoprene emissions more than double! (1242 TgCyr-1)
  • BUT, recent work suggests that NPP increases may be overestimated by 74% when neglecting the role of nutrient limitation
  • [Thornton et al., 2007]

[Heald et al., GCB, accepted]

primary biological aerosol particles pbap
PRIMARY BIOLOGICAL AEROSOL PARTICLES (PBAP)

ALGAE

VIRUSES

BACTERIA

POLLEN

FUNGUS

LARGE particles (> 10 µm)

PLANT

DEBRIS

Jaenicke [2005] suggests may be as large a source as dust/sea salt (1000s Tg/yr)

Elbert et al. [2007] suggest emission of fungal spores ~ 50 Tg/yr

How much does this source contribute to sub-micron OC?

preliminary empirical pbap simulation
PRELIMINARY EMPIRICAL PBAP SIMULATION

Based on Elbert et al. [2007] who summarize observed PBAP concentrations and estimate 50 Tg/yr of fungal spores emitted over entire size range.

Surface: June

Global Annual Mean Burden

1.4

Tg

1.0

0.15

0.03

POA

SOA

PBAP

fine

PBAP

int

1-3 m

< 1 m

?

?

Global Model: GEOS-Chem (2x2.5)

any indication of pbap in amaze 08
ANY INDICATION OF PBAP IN AMAZE-08?

Field site: close to Manaus, Brazil (in Amazonia), Feb-Mar

Early Feb:

Fire influence

SIMULATED OC

No obvious indication of an important sub-micron PBAP in the “pristine” Amazon…

What about “intermediate” size range??

NEED: (1) better understanding of emission drivers

(2) More observations of PBAP

**PRELIMINARY AMS obs: Scot Martin, Qi Chen (Harvard). Jose Jimenez, Delphine Farmer (CU Boulder)

acknowledgements
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Mick Wilkinson, Russ Monson

Clement Alo, Guiling Wang

Alex Guenther

Qi Chen, Scot Martin

Delphine Farmer, Jose Jimenez

Andi Andreae

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