What exactly are chromosomes dna and genes
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What exactly are Chromosomes, DNA and Genes?. Introduction to Genetics. Introduction to Genetics Video. Chromosome. 46 inside every cell Chromosomes are in the cell in pairs. One came from mom and one came from dad . . Dad’s Chromosome. Mom’s Chromosome.

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What exactly are Chromosomes, DNA and Genes?

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What exactly are chromosomes dna and genes

What exactly are Chromosomes, DNA and Genes?

Introduction to Genetics


Introduction to genetics video

Introduction to Genetics Video


Chromosome

Chromosome

  • 46 inside every cell

  • Chromosomes are in

    the cell in pairs.

  • One came from mom and one came from dad.

Dad’s Chromosome

Mom’s Chromosome


Dna deoxyribonucleic say dee ox see ri bo nyoo clay ik acid

DNA - deoxyribonucleic (say: dee-ox-see-ri-bo-nyoo-clay-ik) acid

  • Long strands of genetic code

  • Makes up chromosomes in plants and animals

DNA


Genes

Genes

  • Tiny pieces of DNA that are instructions for specific traits


Traits

Traits

  • Things that you inherit from your parents

  • Examples: Hair color, eye color and having freckles or not

  • Through sexual reproduction you inherited a set of traits


Traits1

Traits

  • Pairs of letters are used to define genes in your body

  • CAPTIAL LETTERS are used to represent DOMINANT genes

  • lower case letters are used to represent recessive genes

  • Dominant trait: If you receive even one of these in the pair, you will get a specific trait.

  • Recessive trait: You have to have two of these in the pair to get a specific trait


Genotypes

Genotypes

  • The letter associated with the gene

    • Example: W (dominant widow’s peak) w (recessive no widow’s peak)


Phenotypes

Phenotypes

  • This is the "outward, physical manifestation“

  • The actual physical trait

    • Example: Widows Peak


Allele

Allele

  • Allele: The single letter such as the a or the A.


Heterozygous having two different alleles

Heterozygous – having two different alleles

  • Aa

  • Bb


Homozygous having the same alleles

Homozygous – having the same alleles

  • AA

  • BB


Practice

Practice:

B – brown hair b – red hair

My genes: Bb

What color hair will I have?

Is Bb the phenotype or the genotype?

Are my genes heterozygous or homozygous?


Practice1

Practice:

A – attached earlobea – unattached earlobe

My genes: aa

What will my earlobes do?

Is attached earlobe the phenotype or the genotype?

Is my genotype homozygous or heterozygous?


Practice2

Practice:

D – dimplesd – no dimples

My genes: DD

Do I have dimples or not?

What is the genotype?

Is my genotype heterozygous or homozygous?


What exactly are chromosomes dna and genes

Quiz

F – frecklesf – no freckles

My genes: FF

Do I have freckles or not?

What is the phenotype?

What is the genotype?

Is my genotype heterozygous or homozygous?

Which parent carried the dominant gene?


What is a punnett square

What is a PUNNETT SQUARE?

  • A tool to predict the probability of certain traits in offspring that shows the different ways alleles can combine

  • A way to show

    phenotype & genotype

  • A chart that shows

    all the possible

    combinations of alleles

    that can result when

    genes are crossed


Punnett squares video

Punnett Squares Video


Using a punnett square

Using a PUNNETT SQUARE

To set up a Punnett square, draw a large square, and then divide it into 4 equal sections (also squares). It should look something like this:


Using a punnett square1

Using a PUNNETT SQUARE

  • Now you need two parents to mate, ones with a known genotype

  • For example, Brown hair (genotype BB) and blonde hair (genotype Bb). BB x Bb

  • In this scenario, the Mom has brown hair. The dad blonde hair.


Using a punnett square2

Using a PUNNETT SQUARE

  • The two-letter combinations are the possible genotypes of offspring

  • They are: BB, Bb, BB, and Bb genotypes

  • From this it is possible to determine the probability (chance) that a baby will have a brown phenotype (2/4 or 50%) or a blonde phenotype (2/4 or 50%)


Using a punnett square3

Using a PUNNETT SQUARE

Place one of the parents on top, and one on the left. You should get a something similar to this:

B

b

B

100%

B

What is the probability of having the recessive trait?


Punnet square practice with white boards

Punnet Square Practice with White Boards

100%

h

h

H

H

What is the probability of having the dominant trait?


Punnet square practice with white boards1

Punnet Square Practice with White Boards

25%

w

W

w

W

What is the probability of having the recessive trait?


Punnet square practice with white boards2

Punnet Square Practice with White Boards

50%

w

W

w

w

What is the probability of having the dominant trait?


Does it work with animals and plants

Does it work with animals and plants?

  • Yes, all of this works the same way in determining the outcome of combining animals and plants.

  • How can we relate this to selective breeding?

  • How can we relate this to genetic engineering?


Pedigree charts

Pedigree Charts

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=Wuk0W10EveU


Extracting dna from a banana

Extracting DNA from a Banana

Lab Expectations:

  • C.H.A.M.P.S. Group Work

    • Conversation: Voice Level 1-2

    • Help: 3 Fingers Signal

    • Activity: Complete Lab and Activity Sheet

    • Movement: Stay in Seats, Use Finger Signals

    • Participation: Discuss, Help with Lab, Group Jobs


Dna extraction virtual lab

DNA Extraction Virtual Lab

  • http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/labs/extraction/#


Example video

Example Video

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dhS89DfP-aQ


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