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TYPES OF STEMS. 1. Crown-highly compressed stem 2. Tillers-primary lateral stem 3. Stolons-above ground, secondary lateral stem 4. Rhizomes-below ground, secondary lateral stem 5. Culm -stem of grass plant, flowering. Basic Plant Structure. Basic Plant Structure. apical

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types of stems
TYPES OF STEMS
  • 1. Crown-highly compressed stem
  • 2. Tillers-primary lateral stem
  • 3. Stolons-above ground, secondary lateral stem
  • 4. Rhizomes-below ground, secondary lateral stem
  • 5. Culm -stem of grass plant, flowering
basic plant structure1
Basic Plant Structure

apical

meristem

basic plant structure2
Basic Plant Structure

apical

meristem

Leaf Blade (lamina)

Petiole

basic plant structure3
Basic Plant Structure

apical

meristem

Leaf Blade (lamina)

node

basic plant structure4
Basic Plant Structure

apical

meristem

Leaf Blade (lamina)

node

internode

basic plant structure5
Basic Plant Structure

apical

meristem

Leaf Blade (lamina)

node

internode

axillary bud

basic plant structure6
Basic Plant Structure

apical

meristem

Leaf Blade (lamina)

node

internode

axillary bud

primary

root

secondary, branch

root

tillers
Tillers
  • Develop from axillary buds
  • Usually live less than 1 year
  • Some produced in spring, important for summer survival
  • Some produced in fall, usually die late spring, early summer
  • Enhanced by mowing
  • Some grasses only produce tillers - Bunch grasses
  • Tillers represent the future for bunch grasses
  • Intravaginalshoot development
stolons
Stolons
  • Grow along soil surface, aboveground
  • Live one or more years
  • Produced in fall for cool season grasses
  • In spring for warm season grasses
  • Extravaginal shoot development, involving rupture of surrounding sheath tissue
  • Stolons may branch profusely
  • These grasses are sod-forming
rhizomes
Rhizomes
  • Grow underneath the soil, an underground version of the stolon
  • Determinate (KBG) are short and non-branching
  • Indeterminate (Berm.) are long and multi-branched.
  • Provides sod strength
  • Winter survival
  • Wear tolerance
  • Major storage organ for long-term survival
the crown
The Crown
  • Most important part of plant
  • Place where new shoots develop
  • Highly compressed series of nodes
  • Where all the leaves are attached
  • Where all the axillary buds are located
  • Where tillers, rhizomes, stolons originate
  • Highly protected!
the phytomer unit
The Phytomer Unit
  • The smallest complete unit containing all the necessary parts of the turf plant:
    • Node
    • Internode (stem piece)
    • Axillary bud at node
    • Root Primordia at node
  • A phytomer can survive on its own - this is the basis for vegetative propagation.
culm the flowering shoot
CULM - The Flowering Shoot
  • Phases:
    • a. Maturation - plant must be old enough, big enough
    • b. induction
      • 1. Vernalization - cold treatment - take place in growing point - reversible. Cool season grasses
      • 2. Photoperiod - takes place in leaves
        • cool season = long day
        • warm season = short day
    • c. Initiation - crown changes from vegetative to flowering - elongation occurs
    • d. Development - seed head formation
slide19
CULM
  • Disadvantages:
    • b. drains food reserves
    • c. death of shoot
    • d. mowing is difficult
    • e. affects play, Poa annua
    • a. unsightly
ii leaves
II. LEAVES
  • The leaves are the major site of food production. They contain the green pigment chlorophyll. Photosynthesis is the process that produces carbohydrates. Leaves originate at the crown, both the apical meristem and axillary buds.
  • What is a meristem?
  • Intercalary meristem?
ii leaves continued
II. LEAVES (continued)
  • 1. Components
    • a. blade
    • b. sheath
    • c. collar
    • d. ligule
    • e. auricle
  • 2. Vernation
  • 3. Leaf #/shoot
    • a. same for given environ, usually 5-10/shoot
leaf anatomy
Leaf Anatomy

Xylem

Phloem

Epidermis

Veins

Midrib

roots if you can grow roots the shoots will take care of themselves
Roots“If you can grow roots, the shoots will take care of themselves”
  • Anchorage
  • Absorption of water and nutrients
  • Storage
  • Primary, or seminal develop from seed, short lived
  • Adventitious roots develop later and then continuously from the nodes. Nodal roots.
regions of the root
Regions of the Root
  • Root Cap
  • Meristem
  • Region of Elongation
  • Region of Differentiation - where root hairs develop, and also vascular tissue
  • Region of Maturation, where suberization occurs. Roots become more rigid. Lateral roots form
root systems
Root Systems
  • Multibranching and fibrous
  • Turf roots not major storage organs
  • Source of plant hormones, cytokinins
  • Usually 4-18 inches deep
  • Warm-season grasses have larger diameter, deeper roots than cool-season grasses
slide26

Stele

Maturation

Root Hairs

Differentiation

Elongation

Meristem

Root Cap

restrictions to rooting
Restrictions to Rooting
  • High soil temperatures
  • Acidic soils, aluminum toxicity
  • Lack of oxygen
  • Salts
  • Pesticides
  • Improper mowing height, frequency
  • Excessive N, deficient K nutrition
  • Excessive thatch
  • Improper irrigation
  • Flowering
root longevity
Root Longevity
  • Death and replacement is continuous
  • Some roots last < 6 months, some > 2 years (KBG)
  • Seasonal root growth: cool-season best in spring and fall, warm-season best in summer. Spring root decline in WS, summer root decline in CS.
temperature effects
4. Cool Season

a. Growth Curve

b. Temperature:

Min - 33oF

Opt - 50-65oF

Max - 80oF

5. Warm Season

a. Growth Curve

b. Temperature

Min - 40oF

Opt - 75-85oF

Max - 110oF

Temperature Effects
warm season grasses
COMMON

Bahia

Barnyard Grass

Bermuda

Centipede

Dallisgrass

Goosegrass

Japanese Lawngrass (Zoysia)

Large Crabgrass

Smooth Crabgrass

St. Augustine

Yellow Foxtail

SCIENTIFIC

(Paspalum notatum)

(Echinochloa crusgalli)

(Cynodon dactylon)

(Eremochloa ophiuroides)

(Paspalum dilatatum)

(Eleusine indica)

(Zoysia japonica)

(Digitaria sanguinalis)

(Digitaria ischaemum)

(Stenotaphrum secundatum)

(Setaria glauca)

WARM SEASON GRASSES
cool season grasses
COMMON

Annual Bluegrass

Kentucky Bluegrass

Rough Bluegrass

Colonial Bentgrass

Creeping Bentgrass

Italian Ryegrass

Orchardgrass

Perennial Ryegrass

Quackgrass

Red Fescue

Tall Fescue

SCIENTIFIC

(Poa annua)

(Poa pratensis)

(Poa trivialis)

(Agrostis tenuis)

(Agrostis palustris)

(Lolium multiflorum)

(Dactylis glomerata)

(Lolium perenne)

(Agropyron repens)

(Festuca rubra var. rubra)

(Festuca arundinacea)

COOL SEASON GRASSES
general growth curves
General Growth Curves

Warm Season

Cool Season

Growth

Jan. Mar May July Sept Nov.

regions of adaptation1
Regions of Adaptation

CoolHumid

Cool Humid

Cool Arid

Transition

Warm Arid

Warm Humid

Tropical

physiology
PHYSIOLOGY
  • 1. Two processes required for growth:
    • a. photosynthesis
    • b. Respiration
  • Growth = photosynthesis - respiration
physiology1
PHYSIOLOGY
  • Photosynthesis
    • manufactures food
    • H2O + CO2 + light = sugar + O2 + water
    • Sugars used to build new tissue, and to maintain existing tissue through respiration.
    • Sugars stored in crowns, stolons, rhizomes and roots.
photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
  • Cool season grasses, C3, 60 - 75o
  • Warm Season grasses, C4, 80 - 95o

C4 plants can utilize high light better

c3 vs c4 species
C3 vs. C4 Species

C4species

Photosynthesis

C3 species

Light Intensity

respiration
Respiration
  • Produces energy to build tissue, maintain existing tissues
  • Carbohydrates broken down

sugar + O2 = CO2 + H2O + energy

physiology2
PHYSIOLOGY
  • Warm season - respire mainly in dark
  • Cool season - respire in dark and light. This is called "photorespiration”
  • Comparison

Photorespiration Photosynthetic

rate rate

C3 High Low

C4 Low High

environmental effects
Environmental Effects
  • Photosynthesis slightly affected by temperature.
  • Respiration affected greatly by temperature. As temperature increases, so does respiration.
    • Accumulate food in cool temperatures
          • Photosynthesis > respiration

Deplete food in high temperatures

          • Respiration > photosynthesis

EX: Summer fertilization of cool season grasses

physiology3
PHYSIOLOGY
  • Accumulate food when growth is slow.
      • eg. Fall fertilization
  • Deplete food when growth is fast
      • eg. spring root die back
      • eg. Recovery from environment or pest
      • eg. Seed head production
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