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Fundamentals of Hardware and Software. Desmond Wilson September 2011. GENERAL OBJECTIVES. Appreciate the fundamental hardware and software terminologies and concepts; Develop expertise in the operation and use of microcomputer-based systems. SPECIFIC LEARNING OBJECTIVES.

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Fundamentals of hardware and software

Fundamentals of Hardware and Software

Desmond Wilson

September 2011


General objectives
GENERAL OBJECTIVES

  • Appreciate the fundamental hardware and software terminologies and concepts;

  • Develop expertise in the operation and use of microcomputer-based systems.


Specific learning objectives
SPECIFIC LEARNINGOBJECTIVES



A computer defined
A Computer Defined

A computer also known as the hardware, is a device made up of a combination of electronic and electromechanical (part electronic and part mechanical) components, that manipulates data according to a set of instructions


A general purpose computer system
Ageneral-purpose Computer System

A computer system includes hardware devices and software to make the computer function.

It is a combination of six parts;

  • Hardware

  • Software

  • Data / Information

  • Procedures

  • People

  • Communications


Software
Software

Electronic instructions that tell

hardware how to perform a task.

Software consists of a group of related programs. Each program in turn is made up of related instructions that perform very specific processing tasks. Software that runs the hardware and allows the computer to manage its resources is systems software;

Software that is acquired to perform general business functions is referred to as application software or a software package.


Data information
Data / Information

Data the raw facts and figures that are processed into information.

Informationis summarized data, data with meaning or otherwise manipulated (processed) data.


Procedures
Procedures

Procedures are descriptions of how things are done, steps for accomplishing a result.

Procedures for computer systems appear in documentation manuals, which contain the guidelines for using the hardware and software.


People
People

People, design and develop computer systems, operate computers, create software, and establish procedures for carrying out tasks.


Communications
Communications

Communications, this becomes an element when one computer system needs to share data and information with another computer system electronically.


Specific learning objectives1
SPECIFIC LEARNINGOBJECTIVES


Computer hardware components
Computer hardware components

  • Consists of:

    • Input devices

    • The Central Processing Unit (CPU) or processor

    • Output devices

    • Primary or Immediate Storage or Main Memory

    • Secondary or Permanent Storage


Input devices
Input devices

- used to collect data and input it into the computer system in computer-usable form


The central processing unit
The Central Processing Unit

  • Has two main parts:

    • Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)

      • Performs all the arithmetic and logic operations

    • Control Unit (CU)

      • Controls the flow and execution of data and instructions


Output devices

Provides user with opportunity to view or hear, and recently feel information produced by a computer system. - either in hardcopy form, such as printouts from a printer, or softcopy form, such as a display on a monitor, a TV-like screen, or sounds or music from speakers, or resistance on a joystick or vibrations on a body pack.

Output devices


Primary storage immediate storage or main memory
Primary Storage , Immediate Storage or Main Memory

Primary Storagealso known as immediate storage, main storage or memory is the area in the computer which data is stored for quick access by the computer’s processor


Secondary or permanent storage
Secondary or Permanent Storage

- the means of storing software and data in a form that is relatively permanent, or nonvolatile.


Units of storage
Units of Storage

Bit - A computer stores data in combinations of 0 and 1. Storage devices are built from bi-stable devices that can be set to 0 or 1. Each state is a binary digit that is usually referred to as a bit.

Nibble – This is four bits or half of a byte.

Byte– A group of eight bits for example 01001011 is a byte. Every character you type (letter, digit, symbol) takes one byte of storage.

Word– Is the basic unit for accessing computer storage. For example, a 32-bit computer can access 32 bits of data from the computer storage in one operation.

Word size – is a unit of measurement using the amount of bits in the word. Computers currently have a word size of 32 bits and 64 bits. This means that the computer can process four characters (32 bits) or eight characters (64 bits) at a time.




Supercomputers
Supercomputers processing speed and power into

A supercomputer is the fastest, most powerful, and most expensive computer used for applications that require complex and sophisticated mathematical calculations.

Typical tasks carried out by supercomputers include weather forecasting, space exploratory projects, scientific and weapons research.

Whilst supercomputers are working, they generate so much heat that they need to be housed in specifically designed rooms with environmental controls and air conditioning systems.


Mainframe computers
Mainframe Computers processing speed and power into

A mainframe is a large, expensive, but powerful computer that can handle thousands of connected users at the same time.

Users typically access a mainframe via a personal computer or a terminal.

Typical users of mainframes include banks, police insurance companies, and airlines with sophisticated reservation systems.

Mainframe computers need to be operated by specialist, trained staff. They are usually kept in an air-conditioned rooms away from the office or factory floor.


Minicomputers
Minicomputers processing speed and power into

A minicomputer is often used in situations where a microcomputer is not powerful enough but a mainframe is too expensive.

Minicomputers are also known as mid-range servers, which can normally support up to several thousands users at the same time.

Users typically access a minicomputer via a personal computer or a terminal.


Microcomputers
Microcomputers processing speed and power into

A microcomputer is a computer that can perform all of its input, process, output, and storage activities by itself.

Microcomputers are often known as personal computers (PC).

Microcomputers include desktop computers, tower model computers, notebook computers, handheld computers, and Internet appliances.


Trends
Trends processing speed and power into

Body Movement Input Devices

Input Devices of the Future

Get ready to cast aside your keyboard and mouse. Future computer input devices will rely heavily on the movements of our eyes, head, hands, body and the words that we speak. But are you ready for a computer that can read your mind? let's check out the latest developments in computer-human interaction...

Brain-Computer Interface Devices

The most fantastic of all future input devices has to be the brain wave detection input device. To use this device you will simply have to think about what you want your computer to do and the computer will respond accordingly. It will have sensors that will be able to receive your brain waves and interpret them as a computer command. Can you imagine, composing a term paper or business report just by thinking about what you want to write? Already there are some devices that use EEG and biofeedback technology to detect brain waves and create brain-computer interfaces.

Brain-Computer Interface Devices


Body movement input devices
Body Movement Input Devices processing speed and power into

Body movement input devices are perhaps the easiest step to take in terms of evolving input device technology. These devices will track eye, foot or body position with a magnetic tracker or 3D tracker and mirror those movements on your computer screen. These devices are already in development, and some demographics are already using them. For example, people with mobility disabilities like paralysis or MS, can use head position trackers to help them use their computers.


Brain computer interface devices
Brain-Computer Interface processing speed and power intoDevices

The most fantastic of all future input devices has to be the brain wave detection input device. To use this device you will simply have to think about what you want your computer to do and the computer will respond accordingly. It will have sensors that will be able to receive your brain waves and interpret them as a computer command. Can you imagine, composing a term paper or business report just by thinking about what you want to write? Already there are some devices that use EEG and biofeedback technology to detect brain waves and create brain-computer interfaces.


Output devices of the future
Output devices processing speed and power intoof the Future

Shokpress Light Pen Future Computer Technology

Have a look at these pictures and all you get to see is few pens with hidden cams like device in them? But in reality its not that simple case ladies and gentlemen.


You processing speed and power intoare getting a chance of sneaking into a potential technology that could one day be very important for the future of computing. The light signaling and sensing technology could be a complete replacement of current computer input and output devices like monitor and keywords.


This pen sort of instrument produces both the monitor as well as the keyboard on flat surfaces from where you can just carry out the normal operations you do on your conventional desktop and laptop PCs.


In the revolution of miniature of computers, the scientists are ahead with photonic technology. see the forthcoming computers within our pockets. It seems like Bill Gates was right a couple of years ago when he said: "You haven't seen anything yet."


Storage communication devices
Storage & Communication devices are ahead with photonic technology. see the forthcoming computers within our pockets. It seems like Bill Gates was right a couple of years ago when he said: "You haven't seen anything yet."

Cobalto concept phone

http://thenextweb.com/2010/01/01/avatar-takes-1-petabyte-storage-space-equivalent-32-year-long-mp3/

holographic technology

http://www.petabyteharddrive.net/


Communication devices
Communication Devices are ahead with photonic technology. see the forthcoming computers within our pockets. It seems like Bill Gates was right a couple of years ago when he said: "You haven't seen anything yet."

It is a technique that allows the light scattered from an object to be recorded and later reconstructed. The image changes as the position and orientation of the viewing system changes in exactly the same way as if the objects were still present, thus making the recorded image (hologram) appear three dimensional.

With the hologram, no special glasses are needed and the number of perspectives is only limited by the number of cameras used. Another striking feature is that multiple persons can simultaneously use without any need to stand at a particular location. To create the hologram, cameras take color images at multiple angles and send them over an Ethernet line. So if we talk about video conferencing, the users sitting on one of the sides will see the side view, those sitting in the front will be seeing the front view and those at the back will be receiving the back view.


Cobalto concept phone projects high definition 3d holograms into the air
Cobalto are ahead with photonic technology. see the forthcoming computers within our pockets. It seems like Bill Gates was right a couple of years ago when he said: "You haven't seen anything yet." concept phone projects high definition 3D holograms into the air

Cobalto is a concept almost impossible to imagine. Instead of using a simple screen, the phone projects high definition 3D holograms into the air- allowing the user to interact with it in thousands of ways. The phone’s design is mesmerizing- no buttons are present; it simply consists of a transparent glass display and a metal frame. The sleek and minimalistic design promise mobility and convenience. No special glasses are required to view the phenomenon- turn on the device to view projected 3D images. The phone provides all the features found in normal phones, whether it be maps, music, or video. The addition of holograms though, make normal activities much more exciting. With holograms, technology such as 3D conferencing is possible- when a call is made a 3D holographic representation of the person pops up. This would make calls much more realistic and efficient. The user interacts with the phone by using either numeric keys or an iPod like dial. The phone gives us a glimpse of the power of tomorrow’s technology.


Resources
Resources are ahead with photonic technology. see the forthcoming computers within our pockets. It seems like Bill Gates was right a couple of years ago when he said: "You haven't seen anything yet."

Bellefield High School website Assignments & Handouts link:http://bellefieldhigh.webs.com/assignmentshandouts.htm

ICT content module:

http://www.teach-ict.com/ecdl/module_1/module_1.htm

On Petabytes : http://www.petabyteharddrive.net/

Wearable computers:

http://www.futureconverged.com/Home/tabid/204/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/484/Wearable-Computing.aspx


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