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Life During Wartime. Chapter 11 Section 3 Page 351. African American Soldiers. Union nor Confederacy accepted African Americans at the beginning of the war. 1862, Union began allowing blacks to serve. 10% of Union army was black Served in segregated units

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life during wartime

Life During Wartime

Chapter 11 Section 3

Page 351

african american soldiers
African American Soldiers
  • Union nor Confederacy accepted African Americans at the beginning of the war.
  • 1862, Union began allowing blacks to serve.
  • 10% of Union army was black
  • Served in segregated units
  • Could not rise above the rank of captain.
  • Alexander Augusta, a surgeon, did become a lieutenant.
african american soldiers3
African American Soldiers
  • Black troops were paid less than whites.
  • Some black regiments served w/o pay rather then take the lesser amount offered.
  • Congress finally equalized the pay for all troops in 1864.
  • Mortality rates for African Americans was higher b/c they served in high disease areas.
  • When African American troops were captured by the Confederates they were executed rather than treated as prisoners.
  • A particularly gruesome massacre occurred at Fort Pillow Tennessee were Confederate troops murdered 200+ men as they begged for their lives.
slave resistance in the confederacy
Slave Resistance in the Confederacy
  • As Union forces pushed deeper into Confederate territory, thousands of slaves sought freedom behind the lines of the Union army.
  • Slaves who remained on plantations broke tools and sabotaged the farms.
  • Southerners were fearful of a slave uprising so they spread rumors about the poor treatment of freed slaves.
  • By 1864 many Confederates realized that slavery was doomed.
southern shortages
Southern Shortages
  • Food Shortage
    • Drain of man power to the war
    • Union occupation of food growing areas
    • Loss of slaves to work the fields
  • Meat became a luxury
  • Food prices skyrocketed
  • 1863, women and children were rioting over bread & rice
  • Union blockade of southern ports created shortages of items including salt, sugar, coffee, medicine, ect.
northern economic growth
Northern Economic Growth
  • War had a more positive affect on the Northern economy.
  • Most industries were booming
  • Wages did not keep up w/ prices so many people’s standard of living declined.
  • When white male workers went on strike, employers hired women, free blacks, immigrants, & boys to replace the men at lower wages.
  • Northern women got gov. jobs for the first time.
  • Many businesses became corrupt by cheating the gov. on their contracts.
  • Nation’s first income tax was used during the war.
lives on the line
Lives on the Line
  • Life on the front lines was difficult.
    • Men were not given baths on a regular bases.
    • Bathrooms and garbage disposal was almost unheard of.
    • Body lice, dysentery, & diarrhea were common.
  • Army rations were not appealing.
  • Union troops lived on beans, bacon, & hard biscuits.
  • Southerners food was even less appealing.
civil war medicine
Civil War Medicine
  • Established a Sanitary Commission to improve the conditions for troops.
  • It sent agents to teach troops how to sanitize water & set up hospitals.
  • Dorthea Dix became the first female superintendent of women nurses.
    • She insisted nurses be 30+ & plain looking.
    • Clara Barton served on the front lines of battle.
civil war medicine9
Civil War Medicine
  • As a result of the Sanitary Commission, the death rate among Union troops dropped.
  • The South did not have a Sanitary Commission but thousands of women volunteered as nurses.
  • Improvements didn’t reach prisons where life was worse than in camps.
  • The worst Confederate prison was a Andersonville, GA.
  • Prisoners had no shelter & they drank from the same steam that acted as the sewer.
  • 1/3 of the prisoners at Andersonville died.
  • The South’s lack of food & supplies also contributed to the bad conditions as prisons.
  • Prison camps in the North were only slightly better.
  • Did provide shelter and food
  • 15% of the prisoners in the South died
  • 12% of the prisoners in the North died
answer the following questions
Answer the following questions
  • What was the experience of African American soldiers in the Union army?
  • How did slaves aid the fight for freedom in the South?
  • How did the war affect the economy in the South?
  • How did the war affect the economy in the North?
  • How were women affected by the war?
  • What new measure did the U.S. government use to pay for the war?
  • What kinds of conditions did soldiers live in during the war?
  • How were prisoners of war treated?
  • How did the U.S. Sanitary Commission and Clara Barton help soldiers?