Verbs lesson 2
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Verbs: Lesson #2. Lexical and Auxiliary Verbs. Verbs can be divided into two sub-categories: lexical verbs and auxiliary verbs .

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Verbs: Lesson #2

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Verbs lesson 2

Verbs: Lesson #2


Lexical and auxiliary verbs

Lexical and Auxiliary Verbs

  • Verbs can be divided into two sub-categories: lexical verbs and auxiliary verbs.

  • A verb phrase is a group of words that consists of a lexical verb and all its auxiliaries if there are any. If there are any adverbs between the lexical verb and the auxiliaries, they are part of the verb phrase.


Some examples of verb phrases

Some examples of verb phrases

  • Is (The whale is under the ship.)

  • Is going (My husband is going to Antarctica.)

  • Had (Her sister had a rough time last night.)

  • Had known (The dog had known his master for ten years!)

  • Did (He did his homework.)

  • Did not want (He did not want an aspirin.)


Finding the lexical verb in a verb phrase

Finding the Lexical Verb In a Verb Phrase

  • In a verb phrase, the lexical verb is the furthest verb to the right. This verb is sometimes called the “main” verb.

  • Is (The whale is under the ship.) Lexical verb? IS (be)

  • Is going (My husband is going to Antarctica.) Lexical verb? GOING (go)

  • Had (Her sister had a rough time last night.) Lexical verb? HAD (have)

  • Had known (The dog had known his master for ten years!) Lexical verb? KNOWN (know)

  • Did (He did his homework.) Lexical verb? DID (do).

  • Did not want (He did not want an aspirin.) Lexical verb? WANT (want)


Finding the auxiliary verb s in the verb phrase

Finding the Auxiliary Verb(s) in the Verb Phrase

  • Only verb phrases with 2 or more verbs have auxiliary verbs.

  • The auxiliary verbs are the verbs that are not the lexical verbs.

  • Auxiliary verbs serve many important functions. Sometimes auxiliary verbs are called “helping” verbs.


Finding the auxiliary verbs

Finding the Auxiliary Verbs

  • Is (The whale is under the ship.) Lexical verb? IS (be). NO AUXILIARY VERB.

  • Is going (My husband is going to Antarctica.) Lexical verb? GOING (go). AUXILIARY VERB: IS (be).

  • Had (Her sister had a rough time last night.) Lexical verb? HAD (have). NO AUXILIARY VERB.

  • Had known (The dog had known his master for ten years!) Lexical verb? KNOWN (know). AUXILIARY VERB: HAD (HAVE).

  • Did (He did his homework.) Lexical verb? DID (do). NO AUXILIARY VERB.

  • Did not want (He did not want an aspirin.) Lexical verb? WANT (want). AUXILIARY VERB: DID (do).


More exciting stuff about auxiliaries

More exciting stuff about auxiliaries

  • There are basically two kinds of auxiliaries: primary and modal.


Primary auxiliaries

Primary Auxiliaries

  • Primary auxiliaries are formed from the verbs have, do, and be.

    EXAMPLES:

    She has known him for ten years.

    They did not like him very much.

    I am frustrated by his stubbornness!


All about modals

All About Modals

  • Modal auxiliaries are formed from a group of words known as modals. Here’s a list of modals in English: will/would/shall/should/can/could/may/

    might/must.

    EXAMPLES: I shall return. You should quit that dirty habit Who could know? This conflict in Gaza must end NOW!


Still more on auxiliaries

Still More on Auxiliaries

  • It is possible to have a verb phrase that has both primary and modal auxiliaries.

  • It is also possible to have a verb phrase with more than one primary auxiliary.

    EXAMPLES:

    You must be joking me!

    You can’t have been told the truth by that guy.


Let s practice with verb phrases

Let’s Practice With Verb Phrases

  • Here are some sentences taken (with some small modifications) from The Tale of the Phoenix by the Indian novelist Dalip Kaur Tiwana. Work with a partner to find the verb phrases, separate the lexical verbs from the auxiliaries (if any) and determine if the auxiliaries are primary or modal.


Verbs lesson 2

  • 1. I still remember Aunty Gautami’s story of Satyakam.

  • 2. The Guru had instructed his disciples carefully.

  • 3. The provisions have been used up.

  • 4. Fetch some more from the village.

  • 5. You are not beggars.

  • 6. You must not beg.

  • 7. You have the right to food.

  • 8. Food is vital to life.

  • 9. Take the food.

  • 10. But nobody should see you!

  • 10. Then return.

  • 11. All the disciples left.

  • 12. On their return, they placed their pickings in front of the sage.

  • 13. One had returned with nothing.

  • 14. He explained his reason.

  • 15. “I could always see myself!”

  • 16. Thus, I could not take any food.


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