Promoting mental health in racialised youth
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Promoting mental health in racialised youth. Kwame McKenzie MD. outline. Mental health Importance of time and context Arguing for preservation of mental capital. Mental health.

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Outline
outline

  • Mental health

  • Importance of time and context

  • Arguing for preservation of mental capital


Mental health
Mental health

  • “a state of wellbeing in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and is able to make a contribution to his or her community”

    • World Health Organization.


Rates of mental health of racialised youth

Some black and minority ethnic youth in Canada have lower rates of mental health problems others have higher rates

Substance misuse and suicidal ideation on increase

Refugee rates of illness are elevated

Hansson et al feb 2012

Rates of mental health of racialised youth


4 dimensions of causation

Individual rates of mental health problems others have higher rates

Ecological

Interaction between ecological and individual

Time

4 dimensions of causation


Time and context for youth

Time and Context for youth rates of mental health problems others have higher rates


Immigrant population by electoral ward in toronto
% immigrant population by electoral ward rates of mental health problems others have higher ratesIn Toronto


The problem is not just bay street
The problem is not just Bay Street rates of mental health problems others have higher rates


City1 city2 city3

Most children in Toronto live in City 3 rates of mental health problems others have higher rates

1/3 of people in City 3 live under low income cut off

50% of the housing for families in City 3 is high rise

Poverty is color coded

City1 City2 City3



Canadian born population and immigrants reporting fair or poor health
Canadian-Born Population and Immigrants decreasing over timeReporting "Fair" or "Poor" Health,

Source: Newbold KB. Self-rated health within the Canadian immigrant population: Risk and the healthy immigrant effect. Social Science and Medicine, 2005.16


More likely to develop poor health if you are non european
More likely to develop poor health decreasing over timeif you are non-European

* Significantly different from estimate for Canadian-born (p <0.01).Note: All explanatory variables are based on the situation in 1994/95. Because of rounding, some confidence intervals with 1.0 as upper/lower limit are significant.Data source: 1994/95 to 2002/03 National Population Health Survey, longitudinal file.


Time and context for providers

Time and context for providers decreasing over time











What is missing

What is missing? shifts to the right





Are there messages that speak to the economic imperative but offer a win-win scenario for racialised youth mental health?


Mental capital
Mental capital? offer a win-win scenario for racialised youth mental health?

  • If we are to prosper in a competitive world our mental and material resources are vital

  • Build environments that enable everyone to realise their potential

  • crucial for our future prosperity and wellbeing.


Mental capital iq eq mental health

Mental capital = IQ + EQ + mental health offer a win-win scenario for racialised youth mental health?


Eq social skills
EQ = social skills offer a win-win scenario for racialised youth mental health?

  • Emotional intelligence (EQ) is not a new concept;

  • Socrates: Know Thyself.

  • Studies show that EQ is the best predictor of a child's future achievement; better than any other single factor.

  • EQ is a better predictor of success than IQ and technical skills combined


Mental capital and health promotion
Mental capital and health promotion offer a win-win scenario for racialised youth mental health?

The challenge to government is to invest in our future

They need to build IQ

To get schools to build EQ

But also to produce environments that protect mental health


Why are rates lower in uk despite ecological risk factors
Why are rates lower in UK despite ecological risk factors? offer a win-win scenario for racialised youth mental health?

  • In the UK rates of mental health problems are lower in BME groups

  • Lower rates of mental illness and mental health problems associated with

  • Having friends from another culture

    • Bhui et al

  • ? Because of social capital


What is social capital
What is social capital? offer a win-win scenario for racialised youth mental health?

Social capital is a way of describing social processes that shape communities or groups of people.

35


Social capital
Social capital offer a win-win scenario for racialised youth mental health?

“By social capital I mean features of social life – networks, norms and trust – that enable participants to act together more effectively to pursue shared objectives”

Putnam

Social capital describes the forces that shape the quantity and quality of social interactions and institutions “the glue that holds society together”

Kawachi.

36


Social capital sub definitions
Social capital: Sub-definitions offer a win-win scenario for racialised youth mental health?

Bonding

Between individuals in families

Bridging

Between different groups in a society

Horizontal

Between individuals and groups at similar levels in a society

Vertical

Between different strata in society and ability to control government etc.

37


Specific impacts on mental health from literature
Specific impacts on mental health from literature offer a win-win scenario for racialised youth mental health?

Social capital’s relation to mental health is complex

Different types of social capital impact on health in different ways

Bridging social capital may produce more access to information, supports and safety nets which buffer the effects of life events on mental health

38


Toronto s multi culturalism
Toronto’s multi-culturalism offer a win-win scenario for racialised youth mental health?


Toronto multi culturalism
Toronto multi-culturalism offer a win-win scenario for racialised youth mental health?


Mosaic without the glue
Mosaic without the glue… offer a win-win scenario for racialised youth mental health?


Shepherd s bush high street
Shepherd’s bush high street offer a win-win scenario for racialised youth mental health?


Promoting mental health in racialised youth1
Promoting mental health in racialised youth offer a win-win scenario for racialised youth mental health?

  • Developing a social system links City 3 - City 1

  • Decreasing gulf between rich and poor

  • Increasing opportunity to build social capital

  • Increasing opportunities to link culturally

  • Developing a culture of preserving mental capital


Mental health promotion is not a mystery
Mental health promotion is not a mystery offer a win-win scenario for racialised youth mental health?

  • Evidence based, cost-effective strategies documented

  • Ontario legislature - every $1 spent on mental health promotion you get $7 return

  • PHAC youth tell us what they want..

  • But we do not do this very well.


Thanks

Thanks offer a win-win scenario for racialised youth mental health?


Simplicity instead of complexity
Simplicity instead of complexity? offer a win-win scenario for racialised youth mental health?


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