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Paragraph 2.2. The land of the Pharaoh. The origin of the State. Because of irrigation agriculture the Egyptians needed a good organisation : After every flooding : boundaries of the fields were gone . Farmers had to maintain all the ponds and canals. They needed to cooperate!.

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Paragraph 2.2

The land of the Pharaoh

The origin of the state

The origin of the State

  • Because of irrigationagriculturethe Egyptiansneeded a goodorganisation:

  • Aftereveryflooding: boundaries of the fieldsweregone.

  • Farmers had to maintain all the ponds and canals.

  • They needed to cooperate!

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  • Somepeoplewerereallygood at organising.

  • Theydevided the tasks.

  • These peoplebecame leaders and made a lot of money.

  • They had civilservants, priestsandsoldiersto help them.

  • Nowtheycandominate the people.



  • This is howstatesarose.

  • Theywereruledbymonarchs.

  • Afterconquestssomebecamebigger.

  • After a whiletherewereonly 2 kingdoms in Egypt: LowerandUpper Egypt.

1 kingdom

1 kingdom

  • 3000 BC kingNarmer, of Upper Egypt, conqueredLower Egypt.

  • Nowit’s 1 state.

  • The king was calledpharaoh.

  • He built a new capital: Memphis.

  • Later Thebes ( now Luxor) became the capital.

Devine pharaoh

Devine Pharaoh

  • Egyptians believed in many gods.

  • They believed the gods ruled over them.

  • They also believe the pharaoh is a god.

  • How come?



  • They believed Pharaoh/god Osiris had ruled Egypt.

  • He was killed by Seth, his brother.

  • His body was cut into pieces.

  • Isis, his wife, put him back together again.

  • They had a son, Horus.

  • Horus, when an adult, banished Seth to the desert.

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  • Horus ruled Egypt.

  • He looked like a falcon, but on earth he was a pharaoh.

  • So pharaoh’s are gods!

  • Pharaoh’s often had sceptres (= staff) and crowns.

Civil servants and priests

Civil servants and priests

  • The pharoah needed help to run the empire.

  • He had servants:

  • High-ranking civil servants: counsellors and provincial governors.

  • Minor civil servants: tax collectors, supervisors and scribes.

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  • The pharaoh had to talk to the gods to keep them happy.

  • Because the gods took care of Egypt.

  • The pharaoh would go to a temple and priests would help him.



  • All the land belonged to the pharaoh.

  • Farmers paid taxes to use the land.

  • They paid with a part of their harvest.

  • Agricultural goods were stored in large granaries.

  • The pharaoh used this to pay his servants, soldiers, etc.

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  • The granaries were also emergency supply for the people f they had a bad harvest.

  • The farmers also had to work for the pharaoh.

  • While the fields were flooded, the farmers would help built a palace or a pyramid.



  • When the highest-ranking civil servant did their job well, they could be rewarded by the pharaoh.

  • They got a hereditary title and they could collect taxes.

  • They became noblemen.

  • Nobility and temples were allowed to get taxes.



  • 3000 BC they Egyptians invented hieroglyphs.

  • (Greek word, means: sacred carving)

  • They carved the text in a stone.

  • The script consisted of small drawings.

  • They could mean 1 word or a sound.



  • Mainly used for religious writing in graves and temples.

  • It was very difficult.

  • So people also had an easier script as an addition, called hieratic script.

  • It was used for administration of temples, the palace and letters.



  • Because of writing, the civil servants could keep track of the possessions of farmers and determine the amount of taxes!

  • They could register property, keep stock and write down laws.

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  • Writing is very important in a state.

  • S0 now the prehistory ends.

  • A new time started: Antiquity.

  • (time of Greek and Romans)

Unity and division

Unity and division

  • The pharaoh was also the leader of the army.

  • He had to protect the people in Egypt.

  • Egypt was often attacked, but most pharaoh’s kept the political unity.

  • Weak pharaohs sometimes lost control, and Egypt was divided again.

  • Subjects always listened to the authority.

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  • Strong pharaohs sometimes tried to expand the country.

  • Expansion was good to get more money!

  • Subjected people had to hand in gold, ivory, ebony, animal hides

  • And prisoners of war were taken home to Egypt.

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