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Paragraph 2.2. The land of the Pharaoh. The origin of the State. Because of irrigation agriculture the Egyptians needed a good organisation : After every flooding : boundaries of the fields were gone . Farmers had to maintain all the ponds and canals. They needed to cooperate!.

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paragraph 2 2

Paragraph 2.2

The land of the Pharaoh

the origin of the state
The origin of the State
  • Because of irrigationagriculturethe Egyptiansneeded a goodorganisation:
  • Aftereveryflooding: boundaries of the fieldsweregone.
  • Farmers had to maintain all the ponds and canals.
  • They needed to cooperate!

Somepeoplewerereallygood at organising.

  • Theydevided the tasks.
  • These peoplebecame leaders and made a lot of money.
  • They had civilservants, priestsandsoldiersto help them.
  • Nowtheycandominate the people.
  • This is howstatesarose.
  • Theywereruledbymonarchs.
  • Afterconquestssomebecamebigger.
  • After a whiletherewereonly 2 kingdoms in Egypt: LowerandUpper Egypt.
1 kingdom
1 kingdom
  • 3000 BC kingNarmer, of Upper Egypt, conqueredLower Egypt.
  • Nowit’s 1 state.
  • The king was calledpharaoh.
  • He built a new capital: Memphis.
  • Later Thebes ( now Luxor) became the capital.
devine pharaoh
Devine Pharaoh
  • Egyptians believed in many gods.
  • They believed the gods ruled over them.
  • They also believe the pharaoh is a god.
  • How come?
  • They believed Pharaoh/god Osiris had ruled Egypt.
  • He was killed by Seth, his brother.
  • His body was cut into pieces.
  • Isis, his wife, put him back together again.
  • They had a son, Horus.
  • Horus, when an adult, banished Seth to the desert.

Horus ruled Egypt.

  • He looked like a falcon, but on earth he was a pharaoh.
  • So pharaoh’s are gods!
  • Pharaoh’s often had sceptres (= staff) and crowns.
civil servants and priests
Civil servants and priests
  • The pharoah needed help to run the empire.
  • He had servants:
  • High-ranking civil servants: counsellors and provincial governors.
  • Minor civil servants: tax collectors, supervisors and scribes.

The pharaoh had to talk to the gods to keep them happy.

  • Because the gods took care of Egypt.
  • The pharaoh would go to a temple and priests would help him.
  • All the land belonged to the pharaoh.
  • Farmers paid taxes to use the land.
  • They paid with a part of their harvest.
  • Agricultural goods were stored in large granaries.
  • The pharaoh used this to pay his servants, soldiers, etc.

The granaries were also emergency supply for the people f they had a bad harvest.

  • The farmers also had to work for the pharaoh.
  • While the fields were flooded, the farmers would help built a palace or a pyramid.
  • When the highest-ranking civil servant did their job well, they could be rewarded by the pharaoh.
  • They got a hereditary title and they could collect taxes.
  • They became noblemen.
  • Nobility and temples were allowed to get taxes.
  • 3000 BC they Egyptians invented hieroglyphs.
  • (Greek word, means: sacred carving)
  • They carved the text in a stone.
  • The script consisted of small drawings.
  • They could mean 1 word or a sound.
  • Mainly used for religious writing in graves and temples.
  • It was very difficult.
  • So people also had an easier script as an addition, called hieratic script.
  • It was used for administration of temples, the palace and letters.
  • Because of writing, the civil servants could keep track of the possessions of farmers and determine the amount of taxes!
  • They could register property, keep stock and write down laws.

Writing is very important in a state.

  • S0 now the prehistory ends.
  • A new time started: Antiquity.
  • (time of Greek and Romans)
unity and division
Unity and division
  • The pharaoh was also the leader of the army.
  • He had to protect the people in Egypt.
  • Egypt was often attacked, but most pharaoh’s kept the political unity.
  • Weak pharaohs sometimes lost control, and Egypt was divided again.
  • Subjects always listened to the authority.

Strong pharaohs sometimes tried to expand the country.

  • Expansion was good to get more money!
  • Subjected people had to hand in gold, ivory, ebony, animal hides
  • And prisoners of war were taken home to Egypt.