Survey of modern psychology
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 30

Survey of Modern Psychology PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 52 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Survey of Modern Psychology. IQ Testing and Learning Disabilities. The Beginnings of IQ Testing. In 1904, Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon created the first IQ test

Download Presentation

Survey of Modern Psychology

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Survey of modern psychology

Survey of Modern Psychology

IQ Testing and Learning Disabilities


The beginnings of iq testing

The Beginnings of IQ Testing

  • In 1904, Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon created the first IQ test

    • A new law in France said that all children had to attend school, and the government wanted a way to identify children who needed remedial help


The beginnings of iq testing1

The Beginnings of IQ Testing

Features of the Binet-Simon test:

  • Interpreted scores as an estimate of current performance, not innate intelligence

  • They wanted the scores to be used to identify children who needed help, not to label children as smart or dumb

  • Emphasized that training and opportunity could affect intelligence and they wanted to identify areas of performance in which special education could help children identified by the test

  • The test was constructed empirically – based on observed performance - rather than a particular definition of intelligence


The beginnings of iq testing2

The Beginnings of IQ Testing

IQ tests became popular in America in the early 1900s

  • There was a big increase in immigration and the public wanted a way to classify people

  • New laws required universal education, and schools wanted a way to determine who could and could not benefit from education

  • When WWI began, the army wanted a way to separate those who could benefit from military training from those who could not

    IQ tests were largely used as a way to discriminate and reinforce prejudices/stereotypes


Survey of modern psychology

The impact of

culture

on

IQ tests


Stanford binet

Stanford-Binet

  • Measured different abilities at different levels

  • Looked at a person’s chronological age vs. their mental age

  • A common criticism was that the test measured different skills at different ages

    • 2-4 year olds were tested on their ability to manipulate objects while adults were tested almost exclusively on verbal items

      • While it would be unreasonable to test a very young child on verbal skills, it is also not appropriate to not test adults on coordination


Stanford binet1

Stanford-Binet

  • Another criticism was that the test used the formula:

    IQ = (Mental Age / Chronological Age) * 100

  • A person could have a normal level of functioning for an adult and the numerator would stay constant, but the denominator would increase

  • Therefore, an elderly person would appear to have an overly low IQ


Theories of intelligence

Theories of Intelligence

Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences:

  • Linguistic intelligence: Often measured on traditional IQ tests by vocabulary tests and reading comprehension

  • Logical – mathematical intelligence: Also measured on most IQ tests with analogies, math problems, and logic problems

  • Spatial intelligence: The ability to mental images of objects and to think about their relationships in space


Gardner s multiple intelligences

Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences

  • Musical intelligence: the ability to perform, compose, and appreciate musical patterns, including patterns of rhythms and pitches

  • Bodily – kinesthetic intelligence: the ability for controlled movement and coordination, such as that needed by a dancer or surgeon

  • Interpersonal intelligence: the ability to understand other people's intentions, emotions, motives, and actions, as well as to work effectively with others

  • Intrapersonal intelligence: the ability to know oneself, to develop a satisfactory sense of identity, and to regulate one’s life


Modern iq tests

Modern IQ Tests

  • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

  • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)

    Results on these tests are highly correlated with academic performance and achievement

    These tests measure skills that are assumed to be components of intelligence and on a variety of tasks


Iq tests use a mean of 100 standard deviation of 15

IQ Tests use a mean of 100, standard deviation of 15


Wais and wisc

WAIS and WISC

These tests assess two forms of intelligence: Verbal and Performance


Verbal scales verbal comprehension index

Verbal ScalesVerbal Comprehension Index

  • Vocabulary

    • Receptive and expressive vocabulary

    • Ex. defining words

  • Similarities

    • Verbal abstract reasoning and conceptualization abilities

    • Ex. How are a snake and alligator alike?


Similarity examples

Similarity Examples

Which letter on the right belongs to the same category as the one on the left?

  • J A M S Z T

  • AS D U V X


Similarity examples1

Similarity Examples

Which letter on the right belongs to the same category as the one on the left?

  • J A M S Z T

    S, because it’s the only letter with a curve in it

  • AS D U V X

    U, because it’s the only vowel


Verbal scales verbal comprehension index1

Verbal ScalesVerbal Comprehension Index

  • Information

    • Similar to trivial pursuit

    • Measures knowledge of factual information, and strongly influenced by culture

  • Comprehension

    • Understanding of social conventions and common sense

    • Also culturally loaded – ex. “What should you do if you find an injured person laying on the sidewalk?”


Verbal scales working memory index

Verbal ScalesWorking Memory Index

  • Arithmetic

    • Mental performance of mathematical word problems

    • Measures attention, concentration, and numeric reasoning

  • Digit span

    • Requires the repetition of number strings forwards and backwards

    • Measures concentration, attention, and immediate memory

    • People with attention deficits or anxiety tend to get lower scores

  • Letter – number sequencing

    • Ex. Repeat the sequence Q-1-B-3-J-2, but place the numbers in numerical order and then the letters in alphabetical order


Performance scales perceptual organization

Performance ScalesPerceptual Organization

  • Picture completion

    • Requires recognition of the missing parts in pictures

    • Measures visual perception, long term visual memory, and the ability to differentiate essential from inessential details


Performance scales perceptual organization1

Performance ScalesPerceptual Organization

  • Block design

    • Considered one of the strongest measures of nonverbal intelligence and reasoning

    • Colored blocks are put together to make designs


Performance scales perceptual organization2

Performance ScalesPerceptual Organization

Matrix reasoning

  • Untimed test which measures abstract nonverbal reasoning ability

  • Consists of a sequence or group of designs and the individual being tested is required to fill in a missing design from a number of choices


Performance scales processing speed

Performance ScalesProcessing Speed

  • Digit Symbol coding

    • Symbols are matched with numbers or shapes according to a key

    • The individual is asked to put the appropriate symbol under digits in a sequence based on the key

    • Measures visual – motor speed and short term visual memory


Performance scales processing speed1

Performance ScalesProcessing Speed

Symbol search

  • The individual scans images and determines whether a target symbol is in that array


Performance scales

Performance Scales

  • Picture arrangement

    • Requires that pictures be arranged in order to tell a story

    • Measures nonverbal understanding of social interaction and ability to reason sequentially

  • Object assembly

    • Consists of jigsaw puzzles

    • Measures visual-spatial abilities and ability to see how parts make up a whole


Learning disabilities

Learning Disabilities

Discussion


Learning disabilities1

Learning Disabilities

Learning disabilities are defined by a disturbance in a skill that significantly interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily living that require that skill

Wechsler said that a learning disability should be diagnosed if scores on performance scales are more than 15 points (1 standard deviation) apart


Learning disabilities2

Learning Disabilities

  • Learning disabilities do not mean that the person is stupid

  • For example, on page 5 of the handout note that in the August 1998 testing the verbal IQ is 130 – two standard deviations above the mean and in the 98% percentile

  • The performance IQ is 110 – in the high end of the average range and the 75% percentile


Problems with the wais

Problems with the WAIS

  • Vocabulary and general knowledge rely heavily on educational background rather than ability

  • Comprehension – there is not necessarily a right or wrong answer, more than one answer may be logical


Problems with the wais1

Problems with the WAIS

  • For example, the question “What is the thing to do if you find an envelope in the street that is sealed and addressed and has a new stamp?”

    • The correct answer, worth 2 points, is to mail it or bring it to the post office

    • The score drops to 1 point with the answer of recognizing that it belongs to someone else and giving it to a police man

    • Suggesting opening it because there may be money in the envelope is a score of zero points. It is not an inherently “wrong” answer and does suggest a form of logic, but it is socially unacceptable


Problems with the wais2

Problems with the WAIS

  • Examiners are supposed to treat all people taking the test the same, but it is impossible for the test to be exactly the same every time

  • Some examiners may ask the person taking the test to explain an answer (especially on the comprehension part), others don’t

  • Historically, black people score better on IQ tests when the test is given by a black examiner


  • Login