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Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman. PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 7: Memory Karen Huffman, Palomar College. Lecture Overview. The Nature of Memory Forgetting Biological Bases of Memory Using Psychology to Improve Our Memory. The Nature of Memory.

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psychology in action 8e by karen huffman

Psychology in Action (8e)byKaren Huffman

PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation

Chapter 7: Memory

Karen Huffman, Palomar College

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

lecture overview
Lecture Overview
  • The Nature of Memory
  • Forgetting
  • Biological Bases of Memory
  • Using Psychology to Improve Our Memory

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

the nature of memory
The Nature of Memory
  • Memory: internal record or

representation of some prior

event or experience

  • Memory is also aconstructive process, in which we actively organize and shape information as it is processed, stored, and retrieved.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

the nature of memory description of four memory models
1. Information Processing Approach: memory is a process analogous to a computer, which encodes, stores, and retrieves informationThe Nature of Memory—Description of Four Memory Models

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

the nature of memory description of four memory models cont
2. Parallel Distributed Processing Model: memory is distributed across a network of interconnected units that work simultaneously (in a parallel fashion) to process informationThe Nature of Memory—Description of Four Memory Models (Cont.)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

the nature of memory description of four memory models continued
The Nature of Memory—Description of Four Memory Models (Continued)

3.Levels of Processing Approach: memory depends on the degree or depth of mental processing occurring when material is initially encountered

4.Traditional Three-Stage Memory Model: memory requires three different storage boxes to hold and process information for various lengths of time

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

diagram of three stage memory model
Diagram of Three-Stage Memory Model

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

the nature of memory description of three stage memory model
The Nature of Memory—Description of Three Stage Memory Model
  • Sensory Memory: briefly preserves a relatively exact replica of sensory information
    • Sensory memory has a large capacity but information only lasts a few seconds.
    • Selected information is sent on to short-term memory.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

the nature of memory three stage memory model cont
The Nature of Memory—Three Stage Memory Model (Cont.)
  • Short-Term Memory (STM): temporarily stores sensory information and decides whether to send it on to long-term memory (LTM)
  • STM can hold 5-9 items for about 30 seconds before they are forgotten.
  • STM capacity can be increased with chunking. STM duration improves withmaintenance rehearsal.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

slide10
STM, also called working memory, is much more than just a passive, temporary holding area.
  • Three parts of working memory:
  • visuospatial sketchpad
  • central executive
  • phonological loop

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

the nature of memory three stage memory model continued
Long-Term Memory (LTM): relatively permanent memory storage with a virtually limitless capacityThe Nature of Memory—Three Stage Memory Model (Continued)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

types of long term memories
Types of Long-Term Memories

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

improving long term memory ltm
Improving Long-Term Memory (LTM)
  • LTM can be improved with:
    • Organization (Flowchart)
    • Elaborative Rehearsal
      • Linking to existing memories
    • Retrieval Cues
      • Recognition (M/C exam)
      • Recall (Essay exam)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

an example of using hierarchies as an organizational tool
An Example of Using Hierarchies as an Organizational Tool

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

an example of recognition vs recall
Research shows people are better at recognizing photos of previous high school classmates than recalling their names. An Example of Recognition Vs. Recall

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

a test for recall can you write down the names of santa s nine reindeer
A Test for Recall: Can You Write Down the Names of Santa’s Nine Reindeer?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

now try recognizing the names need help answers appear in appendix b
A) Rudolph

B) Dancer

C) Cupid

D) Lancer

E) Comet

F) Vixen

G) Blitzen

H) Crasher

I) Donner

J) Prancer

K) Sunder

L) Thunder

M) Dasher

N) Donder

Now Try Recognizing the Names (Need Help? Answers Appear in Appendix B)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

forgetting how quickly do we forget
Forgetting: How Quickly Do We Forget?
  • Ebbinghaus found:
    • forgetting occurs most rapidly immediately after learning.
    • relearning takes less time than initial learning.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

why do we forget five key theories
Decay

Interference

Motivated Forgetting

Encoding Failure

Retrieval Failure

Why Do We Forget? Five Key Theories

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

five theories of forgetting continued
Five Theories of Forgetting (Continued)

1. Decay Theory:

memory degrades with time

2. Interference Theory: one memory competes (interferes) with another

  • RetroactiveInterference (new information interferes with old)
  • Proactive Interference (old information interferes with new)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

two forms of interference
Two Forms of Interference

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

five theories of forgetting continued22
Five Theories of Forgetting (Continued)

3.Motivated Forgetting: motivation to forget unpleasant, painful, threatening, or embarrassing memories

4. Encoding Failure: information in STM is not encoded in LTM

5. Retrieval Failure: memories stored in LTM are momentarily inaccessible (tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

overcoming problems with forgetting
Serial Position Effect: remembering material at the beginning and end of the list better than material in the middleOvercoming Problems with Forgetting

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

overcoming problems with forgetting continued
Overcoming Problems with Forgetting(Continued)
  • Source Amnesia: forgetting the true source of a memory
  • Sleeper Effect: information from an unreliable source, which was initially discounted, later gains credibility because source is forgotten
  • Spacing of Practice: distributed practice is better than massed practice

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

biological bases of memory
Biological Bases of Memory
  • Biological changes in neurons facilitate memory through long-term potentiation (LTP),which happens in at least two ways:
  • repeated stimulation of a synapse strengthens the synapse, and
  • neuron’s ability to release its neurotransmitters is increased or decreased.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

biological bases of memory continued
Hormones

also affect memory (e.g., flashbulb memories--vivid and lasting images are associated with surprising or strongly emotional events).

Biological Bases of Memory (Continued)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

where are memories located
Memory tends to be localized and distributed throughout the brain--not just the cortex.Where Are Memories Located?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

biology and memory loss injury and disease
Amnesia: memory loss from brain injury or trauma

Retrograde amnesia: old memories lost

Anterograde amnesia: new memories lost

Biology and Memory Loss: Injury and Disease

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

biology and memory loss injury and disease continued
Biology and Memory Loss: Injury and Disease (Continued)
  • Alzheimer’s Disease (AD): progressive mental deterioration characterized by severe memory loss

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

memory and the criminal justice system
Memory and the Criminal Justice System
  • Two memory problems with profound legal implications:
  • Eyewitness Testimony--

very persuasive but can be flawed

  • Repressed Memories—

considerabledebate as to whether recovered memories are accurate or repressed

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

using psychology to improve our memory
Using Psychology to Improve Our Memory
  • Why do we distort our memories?
    • Need to maintain logic and consistency.
    • Need to shape and construct our memories because it is more efficient to do so.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

pause and reflect why study psychology
Pause and Reflect: Why Study Psychology?
  • Psychological research conducts basic research, which helps us describe and understand our own and others’ memory processes. This basic research also leads to applied research that shows us how to improve our sensory, short-term, and long-term memory.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

using psychology to improve our memory continued
Using Psychology to Improve Our Memory (Continued)
  • Eight Tips for Memory Improvement:

1.Pay attention and reduce interference

2. Use rehearsal techniques

3. Organization

4. Counteract serial position effect

5. Time management

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

using psychology to improve our memory continued34
Using Psychology to Improve Our Memory (Continued)

6. Use encoding specificity principle (recreate the original learning conditions)

7. Employ self-monitoring and overlearning

8. Use mnemonic devices: method of loci (phys.places), peg-word (hang & associate), substitute word (word parts), word associations (first letters make a new word)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

psychology in action 8e by karen huffman35

Psychology in Action (8e)byKaren Huffman

PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation

End of

Chapter 7: Memory

Karen Huffman, Palomar College

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

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