Predicting the Product in Single Replacement Reactions

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# Predicting the Product in Single Replacement Reactions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Predicting the Product in Single Replacement Reactions. Using the Activity Series. Introduction. In a single replacement reaction, the metal ion in a salt solution is replaced by another metal. AX( aq ) + B( s ) → BX( aq ) + A( s ) For example:

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Presentation Transcript
Introduction
• In a single replacement reaction, the metal ion in a salt solution is replaced by another metal.
• AX(aq) + B(s) → BX(aq) + A(s)
• For example:
• Adding magnesium metal to a solution of silver chloride causes the magnesium to dissolve and the silver to precipitate out.
• 2 AgNO3(aq) + Mg(s) → Mg(NO3)2(aq) + 2 Ag(s)
Introduction
• In a single replacement reaction, the halide in a salt solution is replaced by another halide.
• AX(aq) + Y2 → AY(aq) + X2
• For example:
• Adding chlorine gas to a solution of sodium bromide causes the chlorine to dissolve and the bromine to come out as a liquid.
• 2 NaBr(aq) + Cl2(g) → 2 NaCl(aq) + Br2(l)
Introduction
• These kinds of reactions do not occur with all combinations of metals or halogens.
• Some metals will replace some other metal ions in solution.
• Some halogens will replace some other halogen ions in solution.
• However, not every metal will replace every other metal ion in solution.
Metals
• The metals that replace other metal ions are said to be “more active” than the metals they replace.
• For example, in the reaction
• 2 AgNO3(aq) + Mg(s) → Mg(NO3)2(aq) + 2 Ag(s)
• Mg is more active than Ag.
• By examining a series of reactions with solid metals and dissolved metal ions, we can build a list of metals based on activity.
• We call this the “Activity Series.”
Metals
• The most active metal is Li followed by Rb, K, Ba, Sr, Ca, and Na.
• Each of these metals react with cold water and acids, replacing H.
• Li(s) + H2O(l) → LiO(s) + H2(g)
• 2 K(s) + HCl(aq) → 2 KCl(aq) + H2(g)
Metals
• The most active metal is Li followed by Rb, K, Ba, Sr, Ca, and Na.
• Each of these metals react with O2(g), forming oxides.
• 2 Ba(s) + O2(g) → 2 BaO(s)
• 2 Rb(s) + O2(g) → Rb2O(s)
Metals
• The next most active set of metals is Mg followed by Al, Mn, Zn, Cr, Fe, and Cd.
• Each of these metals react with H2O(g) and acids, replacing hydrogen.
• Mg(s) + H2O(g) → MgO(s) + H2(g)
• Zn(s) + 2 HNO3(aq) → Zn(NO3)2(aq) + H2(g)
Metals
• The next most active set of metals is Mg followed by Al, Mn, Zn, Cr, Fe, and Cd.
• Each of these metals react with O2(g), forming oxides.
• 2 Zn(s) + O2(g) → 2 ZnO(s)
• 4 Fe(s) + 3 O2(g) → 2 Fe2O3(s)
Metals
• The next most active set of metals is Co followed by Ni, Sn, and Pb.
• None of these metals react with H2O (hot or cold).
• They do react with acids, replacing hydrogen.
• Co(s) + 2 HNO3(aq) → Co(NO3)2(aq) + H2(g)
• Pb(s) + H2SO4(aq) → PbSO4(aq) + H2(g)
Metals
• The next most active set of metals is Co followed by Ni, Sn, and Pb.
• Each of these metals react with O2(g), forming oxides.
• 2 Ni(s) + O2(g) → 2 NiO(s)
• 2 Sn(s) + O2(g) → 2 SnO(s)
Metals
• The next most active set of metals is Sb followed by Bi, Cu, and Hg.
• None of these metals react with water or acids.
• Each of these metals react with O2(g), forming oxides.
• 4 Sb(s) + 3 O2(g) → 2 Sb2O3(s)
• 2 Cu(s) + O2(g) → 2 CuO(s)
Metals
• The least active set of metals is Ag followed by Pt and Au.
• Each of these metals are fairly unreactive.
• None of these metals react with water or acids.
• None of these metals react directly with O2(g) to form oxides.
• They will form oxides, but only indirectly.
Metals
• The Activity Series:

most active

increasing activity

increasing activity

increasing activity

increasing activity

increasing activity

least active

Halogens
• The most active halogen is F2 followed by Cl2, Br2, and I2.
• Each of these halogens are reactive with a wide variety of elements and compounds.
• The activity series just shows which is most reactive and least reactive.
Halogens

most active

• The Activity Series:
• F2
• Cl2
• Br2
• I2

increasing activity

least active

Using the Activity Series
• The activity series is used to predict whether or not a single replacement reaction will occur.
• First, we look at the ions in a solution.
• Next, we look at the metal or halogen being added to the solution.
• If the metal is higher up on the activity series list, then it goes into solution and the metal ion in solution precipitates out.
• If the metal is lower down on the activity series list, then there is no reaction.
Using the Activity Series
• The activity series is used to predict whether or not a single replacement reaction will occur.
• First, we look at the ions in a solution.
• Next, we look at the metal or halogen being added to the solution.
• If the halogen is higher up on the activity series list, then it goes into solution and the halide ion in solution comes out as a solid, liquid, or gas.
• If the halogen is lower down on the activity series list, then there is no reaction.
Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate.
Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate.
Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate.
Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate.

Zn is more active than Cu.

Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate.

Zn is more active than Cu.

Zn(s) will replace Cu2+(aq).

Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate.
• We predict that the solid zinc will dissolve in the solution (forming Zn2+ ions) and copper metal will precipitate out.
• Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) → ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)
Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.
Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.
Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.
Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.

Mg is more active than Fe.

Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.

Mg is more active than Fe.

Mg(s) will replace Fe3+(aq).

Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.
• We predict that the solid magnesium will dissolve in the solution (forming Mg2+ ions) and iron metal will precipitate out.
• 3 Mg(s) + 2 FeCl3(aq) → 3 MgCl2(aq) + 2 Fe(s)
Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.
Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.
Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.
Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.

Fe is more active than Cu.

Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.

Fe is more active than Cu.

Cu(s) will not replace Fe3+(aq).

Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.
• We predict that there will be no reaction.
• Cu(s) + FeCl3(aq) → no reaction
Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide.
Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide.
Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide.
Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide.

Cl2 is more active than I2.

Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide.

Cl2 is more active than I2.

Cl2 will replace I−.

Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide.
• We predict that the chlorine gas will go into solution (forming a Cl− ion) and the iodine will come out as a solid.
• 3 Cl2(g) + 2 FeI3(aq) → 2 FeCl3(aq) + 3 I2(s)
Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride.
Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride.
Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride.
Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride.

F2 is more active than Cl2.

Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride.

F2 is more active than Cl2.

Cl2will not replace F−.

Using the Activity Series
• For example:
• We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride.
• We predict that there will be no reaction.
• Cl2(g) + FeF3(aq) → no reaction
Summary
• The activity series is used to predict whether or not a single replacement reaction will occur.
• First, we look at the ions in a solution.
• Next, we look at the metal or halogen being added to the solution.
• If the metal is higher up on the activity series list, then it goes into solution and the metal ion in solution precipitates out.
• If the metal is lower down on the activity series list, then there is no reaction.
Summary
• The activity series is used to predict whether or not a single replacement reaction will occur.
• First, we look at the ions in a solution.
• Next, we look at the metal or halogen being added to the solution.
• If the halogen is higher up on the activity series list, then it goes into solution and the halide ion in solution comes out as a solid, liquid, or gas.
• If the halogen is lower down on the activity series list, then there is no reaction.