Predicting the product in single replacement reactions
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Predicting the Product in Single Replacement Reactions. Using the Activity Series. Introduction. In a single replacement reaction, the metal ion in a salt solution is replaced by another metal. AX( aq ) + B( s ) → BX( aq ) + A( s ) For example:

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Predicting the Product in Single Replacement Reactions

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Predicting the product in single replacement reactions

Predicting the Product in Single Replacement Reactions

  • Using the Activity Series


Introduction

Introduction

  • In a single replacement reaction, the metal ion in a salt solution is replaced by another metal.

  • AX(aq) + B(s) → BX(aq) + A(s)

  • For example:

  • Adding magnesium metal to a solution of silver chloride causes the magnesium to dissolve and the silver to precipitate out.

  • 2 AgNO3(aq) + Mg(s) → Mg(NO3)2(aq) + 2 Ag(s)


Introduction1

Introduction

  • In a single replacement reaction, the halide in a salt solution is replaced by another halide.

  • AX(aq) + Y2 → AY(aq) + X2

  • For example:

  • Adding chlorine gas to a solution of sodium bromide causes the chlorine to dissolve and the bromine to come out as a liquid.

  • 2 NaBr(aq) + Cl2(g) → 2 NaCl(aq) + Br2(l)


Introduction2

Introduction

  • These kinds of reactions do not occur with all combinations of metals or halogens.

  • Some metals will replace some other metal ions in solution.

  • Some halogens will replace some other halogen ions in solution.

  • However, not every metal will replace every other metal ion in solution.


Metals

Metals

  • The metals that replace other metal ions are said to be “more active” than the metals they replace.

  • For example, in the reaction

  • 2 AgNO3(aq) + Mg(s) → Mg(NO3)2(aq) + 2 Ag(s)

  • Mg is more active than Ag.

  • By examining a series of reactions with solid metals and dissolved metal ions, we can build a list of metals based on activity.

  • We call this the “Activity Series.”


Metals1

Metals

  • The most active metal is Li followed by Rb, K, Ba, Sr, Ca, and Na.

  • Each of these metals react with cold water and acids, replacing H.

  • Li(s) + H2O(l) → LiO(s) + H2(g)

  • 2 K(s) + HCl(aq) → 2 KCl(aq) + H2(g)


Metals2

Metals

  • The most active metal is Li followed by Rb, K, Ba, Sr, Ca, and Na.

  • Each of these metals react with O2(g), forming oxides.

  • 2 Ba(s) + O2(g) → 2 BaO(s)

  • 2 Rb(s) + O2(g) → Rb2O(s)


Metals3

Metals

  • The next most active set of metals is Mg followed by Al, Mn, Zn, Cr, Fe, and Cd.

  • Each of these metals react with H2O(g) and acids, replacing hydrogen.

  • Mg(s) + H2O(g) → MgO(s) + H2(g)

  • Zn(s) + 2 HNO3(aq) → Zn(NO3)2(aq) + H2(g)


Metals4

Metals

  • The next most active set of metals is Mg followed by Al, Mn, Zn, Cr, Fe, and Cd.

  • Each of these metals react with O2(g), forming oxides.

  • 2 Zn(s) + O2(g) → 2 ZnO(s)

  • 4 Fe(s) + 3 O2(g) → 2 Fe2O3(s)


Metals5

Metals

  • The next most active set of metals is Co followed by Ni, Sn, and Pb.

  • None of these metals react with H2O (hot or cold).

  • They do react with acids, replacing hydrogen.

  • Co(s) + 2 HNO3(aq) → Co(NO3)2(aq) + H2(g)

  • Pb(s) + H2SO4(aq) → PbSO4(aq) + H2(g)


Metals6

Metals

  • The next most active set of metals is Co followed by Ni, Sn, and Pb.

  • Each of these metals react with O2(g), forming oxides.

  • 2 Ni(s) + O2(g) → 2 NiO(s)

  • 2 Sn(s) + O2(g) → 2 SnO(s)


Metals7

Metals

  • The next most active set of metals is Sb followed by Bi, Cu, and Hg.

  • None of these metals react with water or acids.

  • Each of these metals react with O2(g), forming oxides.

  • 4 Sb(s) + 3 O2(g) → 2 Sb2O3(s)

  • 2 Cu(s) + O2(g) → 2 CuO(s)


Metals8

Metals

  • The least active set of metals is Ag followed by Pt and Au.

  • Each of these metals are fairly unreactive.

  • None of these metals react with water or acids.

  • None of these metals react directly with O2(g) to form oxides.

    • They will form oxides, but only indirectly.


Metals9

Metals

  • The Activity Series:

most active

increasing activity

increasing activity

increasing activity

increasing activity

increasing activity

least active


Halogens

Halogens

  • The most active halogen is F2 followed by Cl2, Br2, and I2.

  • Each of these halogens are reactive with a wide variety of elements and compounds.

  • The activity series just shows which is most reactive and least reactive.


Halogens1

Halogens

most active

  • The Activity Series:

  • F2

  • Cl2

  • Br2

  • I2

increasing activity

least active


Using the activity series

Using the Activity Series

  • The activity series is used to predict whether or not a single replacement reaction will occur.

  • First, we look at the ions in a solution.

  • Next, we look at the metal or halogen being added to the solution.

    • If the metal is higher up on the activity series list, then it goes into solution and the metal ion in solution precipitates out.

    • If the metal is lower down on the activity series list, then there is no reaction.


Using the activity series1

Using the Activity Series

  • The activity series is used to predict whether or not a single replacement reaction will occur.

  • First, we look at the ions in a solution.

  • Next, we look at the metal or halogen being added to the solution.

    • If the halogen is higher up on the activity series list, then it goes into solution and the halide ion in solution comes out as a solid, liquid, or gas.

    • If the halogen is lower down on the activity series list, then there is no reaction.


Using the activity series2

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate.


Using the activity series3

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate.


Using the activity series4

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate.


Using the activity series5

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate.

Zn is more active than Cu.


Using the activity series6

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate.

Zn is more active than Cu.

Zn(s) will replace Cu2+(aq).


Using the activity series7

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate.

  • We predict that the solid zinc will dissolve in the solution (forming Zn2+ ions) and copper metal will precipitate out.

  • Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) → ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)


Using the activity series8

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.


Using the activity series9

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.


Using the activity series10

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.


Using the activity series11

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.

Mg is more active than Fe.


Using the activity series12

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.

Mg is more active than Fe.

Mg(s) will replace Fe3+(aq).


Using the activity series13

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.

  • We predict that the solid magnesium will dissolve in the solution (forming Mg2+ ions) and iron metal will precipitate out.

  • 3 Mg(s) + 2 FeCl3(aq) → 3 MgCl2(aq) + 2 Fe(s)


Using the activity series14

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.


Using the activity series15

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.


Using the activity series16

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.


Using the activity series17

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.

Fe is more active than Cu.


Using the activity series18

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.

Fe is more active than Cu.

Cu(s) will not replace Fe3+(aq).


Using the activity series19

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.

  • We predict that there will be no reaction.

  • Cu(s) + FeCl3(aq) → no reaction


Using the activity series20

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide.


Using the activity series21

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide.


Using the activity series22

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide.


Using the activity series23

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide.

Cl2 is more active than I2.


Using the activity series24

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide.

Cl2 is more active than I2.

Cl2 will replace I−.


Using the activity series25

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide.

  • We predict that the chlorine gas will go into solution (forming a Cl− ion) and the iodine will come out as a solid.

  • 3 Cl2(g) + 2 FeI3(aq) → 2 FeCl3(aq) + 3 I2(s)


Using the activity series26

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride.


Using the activity series27

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride.


Using the activity series28

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride.


Using the activity series29

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride.

F2 is more active than Cl2.


Using the activity series30

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride.

F2 is more active than Cl2.

Cl2will not replace F−.


Using the activity series31

Using the Activity Series

  • For example:

  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride.

  • We predict that there will be no reaction.

  • Cl2(g) + FeF3(aq) → no reaction


Summary

Summary

  • The activity series is used to predict whether or not a single replacement reaction will occur.

  • First, we look at the ions in a solution.

  • Next, we look at the metal or halogen being added to the solution.

    • If the metal is higher up on the activity series list, then it goes into solution and the metal ion in solution precipitates out.

    • If the metal is lower down on the activity series list, then there is no reaction.


Summary1

Summary

  • The activity series is used to predict whether or not a single replacement reaction will occur.

  • First, we look at the ions in a solution.

  • Next, we look at the metal or halogen being added to the solution.

    • If the halogen is higher up on the activity series list, then it goes into solution and the halide ion in solution comes out as a solid, liquid, or gas.

    • If the halogen is lower down on the activity series list, then there is no reaction.


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