Nutrition basics
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Nutrition Basics. Chapter 8. Nutritional Requirements: Components of a Healthy Diet. 45 essential nutrients Proteins, Fats, Carbohydrates, Vitamins, Minerals and Water. Fuel potential. Kilocalories ( kcalorie ).

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Nutrition basics

Nutrition Basics

Chapter 8


Nutritional requirements components of a healthy diet

Nutritional Requirements: Components of a Healthy Diet

  • 45 essential nutrients

    • Proteins, Fats, Carbohydrates, Vitamins, Minerals and Water.

  • Fuel potential. Kilocalories (kcalorie).

    • 1 Kcalorie = amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 liter of fluid 1 degree of centigrade.

    • 2000 kcalorie or calories per day meets a person’s needs.

    • 3 supply energy

      • Fat = 9 calories per gram

      • Protein = 4 calories per gram

      • Carbohydrates = 4 calories per gram


Proteins

Proteins

  • Forms muscle, bone, blood, enzymes, hormones and cell membrane.

    • Twenty common amino acids

      • Nine essential amino acids.

      • Eleven nonessential amino acids

    • Complete proteins provide all essential amino acids (e.g., meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, and soy).

      • Most plant proteins are incomplete (e.g., peas, beans, and nuts).

    • Recommended amount

      • 0.8 gram per kilogram of body weight (0.36g

        per pound)

      • 10-35% of total calorie intake

        • Average is 15-16%


Fats or lipids

Fats or Lipids

  • Most concentrated source of energy

    • stored energy and provides insulation and support for body organs

    • Two fats

      • Linoleic acid (unsaturated fatty acid)

      • Alpha-linoleic acid (polyunsaturated fatty acid)

    • Triglycerides - glycerol molecule with 3 fatty acids

  • Saturated Fat (solid at room temperature)

  • Mono-unsaturated

  • Poly-unsaturated

  • Hydrogenation (H+ + unsaturated fat)

  • Trans fatty acids


Fats and health

Fats and Health

  • Cholesterol

    *required for synthesis of cell membranes, vitamin D, and hormones

    • High Density Lipo-Protein (HDLs) – good cholesterol; transport cholesterol out of arteries

    • Low Density Lipo-Protein (LDLs) – bad cholesterol; transport cholesterol to organs and tissues, causing fat deposits on arterial walls


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

  • Supply energy for the body cells

  • Two groups

    • Simple Carbs: One or two sugar units

      • Fruit, sugar, honey, malt (e.g., barley or wheat), and milk

    • Complex Carbs: Multiple sugar units

      • Starches and fiber

        • Grains – wheat, rye, rice, oats, barley, and millet (white grains)

        • Legumes – dry beans, peas, and lentils

        • Tubers – potatoes and yams

    • Digestion

      • Mouth and small intestines

      • Break down to glucose


Refined carbohydrates versus unrefined whole grains

Refined Carbohydrates Versus Unrefined (Whole) Grains

  • All grains before processing

    • Inner layer, germ

    • Middle layer, endosperm

    • Outer layer, bran

  • During processing

    • Germ and bran are removed leaving just the starch of the endosperm


Glycemic index and glycemic response

Glycemic Index and Glycemic Response

  • Insulin and glucose levels

  • Quick rise in glucose and insulin levels = high glycemic index

    • Eating high glycemic index foods may increase appetite

    • May increase risk of diabetes and heart disease

    • Unrefined grains, fruits, vegetables and legumes – relatively low glycemic index

http://www.glycemicedge.com/glycemic-index-chart/


Recommended carbohydrate intake

Recommended Carbohydrate Intake

  • Average American – 200-300 grams

  • 130 grams needed to meet the body’s requirements for essential carbohydrates

  • Adults – 45-65% of total daily calories or 225-325 grams


Fiber

Fiber

  • Food and Nutrition Board

    • Dietary fiber nondigestible carbohydrate that is present naturally

    • Functional fiber nondigestible carbohydrate that has been isolated or synthesized

    • Total fiber is the sum of both

  • Sources

    • All plant substances

  • Recommended intake

    • 38 grams for adult men

    • 25 grams for adult women

    • Needs to come from foods not supplements


Vitamins

Vitamins

  • Organic (carbon-containing) substances required in small amounts to promote specific chemical reactions (catalyst) within a living cell.

  • Thirteen vitamins:

    • Four Fat Soluble: A, D, E, and K.

    • Nine Water Soluble: C and 8 B-complex vitamins. Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin (B3), Pyridoxine (B6), Folate, B-12, Biotin and Pantothenic acid.

  • Sources:

    • Human body does not manufacture most vitamins

    • Abundant in fruits, vegetables and grains


Minerals

Minerals

  • Inorganic compounds.

  • Helps to regulate body functions, aid in growth, maintenance of body tissues, and a catalyst for energy release.

  • 17 essential minerals.

    • Major minerals - 100 milligrams or more.

      • calcium, phosphorus (e.g., additives), magnesium (e.g., nuts), sodium, potassium, iron, and chloride (e.g., additives, such as sodium chloride).


Water

Water

  • Composed of about 50-60% water

  • Can live up to 50 days without food , but only a few days without water

  • Water and other beverages make-up 80-90% of your daily water intake

  • Men – 3.7 total liters of water, with 3.0 liters (13 cups) coming from beverages

  • Women – 2.7 total liters of water, with 2.2 (9 cups) coming from beverages


Other substances in food

Other Substances in Food

Antioxidants –

  • Reduction in cancers

  • Vitamin C & E, selenium (e.g., nuts), carotenoids

  • Phytochemicals

    • Soy foods may help lower cholesterol levels

    • Cruciferous vegetables render some carcinogenic compounds harmless

    • Allyl sulfides (garlic and onions) boosts the cancer-fighting immune cells


  • Basal metabolic rate

    Basal Metabolic Rate

    Your basal metabolic rate, or BMR, is the minimum calorific requirement needed to sustain life in a resting individual. It can be looked at as being the amount of energy (measured in calories) expended by the body to remain in bed asleep all day!

    BMR can be responsible for burning up to 70% of the total calories expended, but this figure varies due to different factors (see below). Calories are burned by bodily processes such as respiration, the pumping of blood around the body and maintenance of body temperature. Obviously the body will burn more calories on top of those burned due to BMR.


    Harris benedict

    Harris-Benedict

    Men: BMR = 66 + (13.7 X wt in kg) + (5 X ht in cm) - (6.8 X age)

    Women: BMR = 655 + (9.6 X wt in kg) + (1.8 X ht in cm) - (4.7 X age)

    Note: 1 inch = 2.54 cm.1 kilogram = 2.2 lbs.

    Example: You are femaleYou are 30 yrs oldYou are 5' 6 " tall (167.6 cm)You weigh 120 lbs. (54.5 kilos)Your BMR = 655 + 523 + 302 - 141 = 1339 calories/day


    Activity m ultiplier

    Activity Multiplier

    Sedentary = BMR X 1.2 (little or no exercise, desk job)Lightly active = BMR X 1.375 (light exercise/sports 1-3 days/wk)Mod. active = BMR X 1.55 (moderate exercise/sports 3-5 days/wk)Very active = BMR X 1.725 (hard exercise/sports 6-7 days/wk)Extr. active = BMR X 1.9 (hard daily exercise/sports & physical job or 2X day training, i.e marathon, contest etc.)

    Example:Your BMR is 1339 calories per dayYour activity level is moderately active (work out 3-4 times per week)Your activity factor is 1.55Your TDEE = 1.55 X 1339 = 2075 calories/day

    Determine the energy cost: ______________________


    Usda s mypyramid

    USDA’s MyPyramid


    Vegetarians

    Vegetarians

    • Possible reasons:

      health

      environmental concerns

      financial considerations

      ethics or religion

    • Types:

      • Vegans (no animal products at all)

      • Lacto-vegetarians (milk and cheese)

      • Lacto-ovo-vegetarians (eggs and milk)

      • Partial vegetarians, semivegetarians, and pescovegetarians (eggs, dairy products, poultry and seafood)

    • A food plan for vegetarians

      • Vitamin B-12

      • Vitamin D

      • Calcium

      • Iron

      • Zinc


    Protecting yourself against foodborne illness

    Protecting Yourself Against Foodborne Illness

    • Causes of Foodborne Illnesses

      • Campylobacter jejuni

      • Salmonella

      • Shigella

      • Escherichia coli

      • Listeria monocytogenes

      • Staphylococcus

      • Clostridium botulinum

      • Norovirus

    • Preventing and treating foodborne illnesses

    • Environmental Contaminants and organic foods

    • Food Allergies

    • Campylobacter jejuni

    • Staphylococcus

    • Salmonella

    • Escherichia coli


    Food allergies and food intolerances

    Food Allergies and Food Intolerances

    • Food allergies

      • Reaction of the body’s immune system

      • Affect 2% of the adult population

      • 4-6% of infants

      • 90% of food allergies

        • Cow’s milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, wheat, fish, and shellfish

    • Food intolerances (metabolic problems)

    Organic food: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wz0MHW5h-Lc&feature=related


    Nutrition basics

    Organic food: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wz0MHW5h-Lc&feature=related


    Connect worksheet assignment

    Connect Worksheet Assignment

    Chapter 8 Worksheet is due Wednesday, October 31st, no later than 11:59PM.


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