Culture – which influences our thinking through: Knowledge Beliefs Values Learned ways of life shared by a group of people. How we treat the environment is a function of How we view the environment. How we view the environment is a function of:.
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Culture – which influences our thinking through:
Learned ways of life shared by a
group of people
How we view the environment is a function of:
Worldview – person’s or group’s beliefs about the meaning, purpose, operation and essence of the world.
Learned ways of life
shared by a group of people
How we view the environment is a function of:
Classical economics and the environment
Economic growth and sustainability
Environmental and ecological economics
Culture and worldview affect perception of the environment and environmental problems.
Should the present generation conserve resources for future generations?
Are humans justified in driving other species to extinction?
Is is OK to destroy a forest to create jobs for people?
Is it OK for some communities to be exposed to more pollution than others?
The answers depend, in part, upon the ethical standard you choose to use.
“People have a right to what they produce themselves, but man has another right, declared by the fact of his existence—the right to use of so much of the free gifts of nature as may be necessary to supply all the wants of that existence, and which he may use with interference with the equal rights of anyone else; and to this he has title against all the world.” Henry George, Progress and Poverty, 1874
“According to the Public Trust Doctrine, the public owns common or shared environments—air, waters, dunes, tidelands, underwater lands, fisheries, shellfish beds, parks and commons, and migratory species. . . . These things ‘are so particularly the gifts of nature’s bounty that they ought to be reserved for the whole of the populace.’ (Joseph L. Sax, 1970).”
"The people have a right to clean air, pure water and to the preservation of the natural, scenic, historic and aesthetic values of the environment. Pennsylvania's public natural resources are the common property of all the people, including generations yet to come.” ~ Article 1, Section 27 of the Pennsylvania Constitution
All life has ethical standing, and any actions taken consider the effects on all living things, or the biotic world in general. .
• Soil formation
• Water purification
• Climate regulation
• Nutrient cycling
• Waste treatment
Value in trillion $
Costanza et al. 1997. Nature
Resources are infinite or substitutable.
All of Earth’s resources are limited.
Even unlimitless ones are limiting if we use them at a rate faster than they can renew.
e.g. Topsoil, fossil fuels.
Long-term effects are discounted.
The depletion of resources will happen in the distant future – no worries.
Events in the future are discounted.
Items in the present are worth more than items in the future.
It is better to acquire resources now while they are worth more than to let them sit and use them later.
Costs and benefits are internal.
The costs of any transaction are experience only by the buyer and the seller.
Other members of society are not affected.
But pollution from a factory can harm people living nearby.
The cost of cleaning up (stream) pollution might be born not by the buyer and seller, but by the taxpayer.
An example of a cost that has not been accounted for
And a cost that is external to the transaction.
In this case, since it costs taxpayers to clean-up pollution (or in the case of G.E., put the fisherman out of business), this is a negative external cost.
Growth is good.
Economic growth is required to keep employment high and maintain social order (keep the working masses happy).
Each of these can contribute to environmental problems.
“The new revenue will directly fund much-needed repairs and improvements to Pennsylvania highways and bridges, and is part of a comprehensive transportation package that will also greatly help mass transit, Kirkpatrick said.”
“Comparisons with other states are somewhat unfair, Fitzpatrick said, since many pass along transportation costs in other ways, such as higher fees, fines and other taxes.”
“Pennsylvania's vehicle registration fees are among the lowest in the nation, with 39 states charging more. Also, 31 states charge more for the cost of a driver's license,” according to a PennDOT news release.
"In Pennsylvania, fuel taxes are used only for highway and bridge-related purposes and state police patrol functions. Income and sales taxes are not used to pay for state-maintained highways and bridges in Pennsylvania," the department said in a press release.http://www.post-gazette.com/news/state/2013/11/25/Corbett-to-sign-transportation-funding-bill-today-Corbett-to-sign-bill-boosting-roads-bridges-mass-transit/stories/201311250115#ixzz3C64cldLk