Dual Credit:  Definitions, Policies, and Strategies

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2. National concern. Assisting all students to make a smooth transition from school to college and work is a growing national concern.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Dual Credit: Definitions, Policies, and Strategies

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1. 1 Dual Credit: Definitions, Policies, and Strategies Debra D. Bragg, Professor College and Careers Transition Initiative March 6, 2005

2. 2 National concern Assisting all students to make a smooth transition from school to college and work is a growing national concern.

3. 3 Long-time concern “It is now undeniably clear that many students in the US need help making the transition from high school to postsecondary learning opportunities... State and federal policy makers recognize this, educators recognize it, and so does the general public.”

4. 4 Transition to College 95% of high school (HS) seniors expect to go to college 70% HS seniors expect a Bachelor’s degree 66% HS seniors enroll in college within 1 year of grad (up from 50% in 1985) US Department of Education (2001)

5. 5 Social Influences Parents and peers encourage college Teachers and counselors - mixed messages K-12 still actively “sorts” students into tracks 46% HS students take college prep HS CTE students take less college prep, but depends on state and program of study

6. 6 College & Upward Mobility We know upward mobility is tied to college Real benefits accrue for 2-year and 4-year college attendance or credentials, BUT… The “achievement gap” for minority and low income populations creates unequal opportunity for college = “underserved student population”

7. 7 “A Shared Agenda” Pathways to College Network (2004) “If we are to attain the goal of being a truly integrated society, we must ensure that the large numbers of underserved students in America achieve at the postsecondary level.” “Today’s world demands that educational systems at all levels support high achievement and the development of life-long learning skills for all students, regardless of background…”

8. 8 Education Pipeline (Mortenson, 2000)

9. 9 College Enrollment by Income (Mortenson, 2001)

10. 10 College Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity (NCES, 2003)

11. 11 BA Attainment by Income (Mortenson, 2001)

12. 12 New Research Academic Pathways to Access and Student Success (APASS) Funded by Lumina Foundation for Education

13. 13 APASS Goals Identify “Academic Pathways” in the 50 states and determine: Special efforts to reach underserved students Policy support (state, federal, local) Thesis: K-12 academic preparation is the strongest predictor of college entry and success… “The true bottom-line is gaining better understanding of academic preparation structures and strategies geared toward enhancing students’ opportunity-to-learn” (Cliff Adelman)

14. 14 “Academic Pathway” means… Boundary-spanning curriculum and supporting organizational structures designed to link and align rigorous K-12 education with postsecondary education (2-year and 4-year college and university) to facilitate student transition to college.

15. 15 Academic Pathways Dual credit/dual enrollment Early or Middle College high schools AP, CLEP, International Baccalaureate (IB) Tech Prep Bridge programs Distance learning – “Virtual Schools/Colleges” High Schools that Work (HSTW) Career Academies GEAR UP

16. 16 Underserved Groups Racial/Ethnic Minority (by group) Low Income Low Achieving English as a Second Language Immigrant First Generation Youth with Disability Male/Female Urban/Rural Incarcerated youth Special populations Pregnant/Parenting Teen Other

17. 17 APASS Inventory Methods January 2004-August 2005 125+ telephone interviews with all 50 states 150+ informants (min. 2 per state) Over 800 staff hours reviewing websites and documentation Create state profiles Develop APASS website Site visit 4-6 states Write summary reports

18. 18 50 State Results

19. 19 Dual Credit = Core Element

20. 20 Focus on Dual Credit (DC)/ Dual Enrollment (DE) Dual credit (DC): Students receive both high school and college credit for a college-level class successfully completed. Dual or Concurrent enrollment (DE): Students are dually or concurrently enrolled (and taking some college-level classes) in high school and college. They may or may not receive high school credit for the college classes.

21. 21 Articulated Credit Articulated credit (AC) aligns secondary and postsecondary courses to allow students who successfully complete selected high school courses to be eligible for credit in the corresponding college course in the future Deferred credit or credit in escrow Credit by proficiency/exam Tech Prep credit

22. 22 Participation in DC/DE Offered in all 50 states with over ½ million students nationwide, not counting AP (2001) Illinois >25,500 Utah >23,000 Kentucky >17,000 Washington >14,000 Oregon >14,000 Minnesota >7000 Nebraska >4500 North Dakota >650

23. 23 DC/DE – Who’s Served? 10 states say “advanced or high achieving” students or “academic enrichment” 28 states say they do make special efforts Student groups by # states: Low income (9) Racial/ethnic minority (8) CTE/Tech Prep students (4) First generation (4) Low achieving (3) Rural (3) Incarcerated youth (3)

24. 24 DC/DE Policies (CCRC, 2004) Of the 50-states: 76% - formal state policy 58% - student eligibility criteria 36% - FTE/ADA funding 35% - dual enrollment opportunities 26% - course content 24% - instructor qualifications

25. 25 DC/DE Funding (CCRC, 2004) Most extensive state policy – neither HS or CC lose ADA/FTE, student tuition costs born by state (AZ, IL, MN) Most limited state policy - both HS and CC lose ADA/FTE, no support for student tuition (MI, GA, OH, NC) Many states somewhere in the middle - CA, CO, MO, TX, VA, WA, WY

26. 26 Reasons for Growth Seen as solution for: Disconnected curriculum Senioritis High school dropout College remediation and attrition Rising cost of college Extended time to degree Etc.

27. 27 Literature Suggests: DC students (relative to peers): Require less remediation Are retained to 2nd year at higher rate Earn more credits toward the degree Higher grades (?) Major problem: Most studies do not control for student academic ability/performance

28. 28 CC&B Results (Kim, 2005) Controlling for academic ability/performance: Articulated CTE credit - positive impact on college readiness in reading and writing Academic dual credit - positive impact on college readiness in math AP - positive impact on college readiness in reading, writing and math All approaches - negative impact on total college-level credit hours earned. Students having articulated CTE credit best retention, but transfer is an issue!

29. 29 Decision Areas Dual Credit in Illinois: Making it Work, E. Barnett (2004) Program approach Organization and funding Course delivery Student selection & guidance Faculty selection Quality assurance Relationships with HS Credit award and transfer Marketing and PR Monitoring & evaluation

30. 30 Strategies Community college play leadership role Use liaisons at CC and HS levels Communicate policy and process clearly to all audiences, including students and parents Engage counseling and advising staff – be sure they understand Think carefully about students to be served Establish clear and meaningful student selection criteria – set the “bar” fairly

31. 31 More Strategies Hire faculty who meet HS and adjunct teaching requirements Involved faculty offer training and on-going mentoring of peers Make course/instructional materials accessible (book rental program) Visible and credible quality control Facilitate transfer from the ‘get-go’

32. 32 Where do we go from here?

33. 33 APASS website http://www.apass.uiuc.edu/

34. 34 For more info Office of Community College Research and Leadership, University of Illinois E-mail: [email protected] Web: http://occrl.ed.uiuc.edu/ Phone: 217-244-9390

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