Women s right to political participation in the context of cedaw with special focus on bangladesh
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UST. Unnayan Shahojogy Team. WOMEN’S RIGHT TO POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN THE CONTEXT OF CEDAW WITH SPECIAL FOCUS ON BANGLADESH. MIRIAM COLLEGE, MANILA,PHILIPPINES 25 Oct’2011. BACKGROUND. Area of Bangladesh 1,47,570 sq. km. Total population of Bangladesh is 14,23,19000 (2011)

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MIRIAM COLLEGE, MANILA,PHILIPPINES 25 Oct’2011

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Women s right to political participation in the context of cedaw with special focus on bangladesh

UST

Unnayan Shahojogy Team

WOMEN’S RIGHT TO POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN THE CONTEXT OF CEDAW WITH SPECIAL FOCUS ON BANGLADESH.

MIRIAM COLLEGE, MANILA,PHILIPPINES

25 Oct’2011


Background

BACKGROUND

  • Area of Bangladesh 1,47,570 sq. km.

  • Total population of Bangladesh is 14,23,19000 (2011)

  • Female 7,10,64000

  • Male 7,12,55000Ratio 100: 100.

  • Total voters Election 2008: 8,10,58,698

  • female 4,12,36,149

  • Male voter 3,98,22,549


Women rights at constitution

WOMEN RIGHTS AT CONSTITUTION

  • Art. 10 : Steps shall be taken to ensure participation of Women in all sphere of national life.

  • Art. 19 (1) : The state shall endeavor to ensure equality of opportunity to all citizen.

  • Art. 27, 28 (1)(3): Law of Equality.

  • Art. 28(2), 29(1): Equal opportunity for men and women.

  • Art. 65(3): Free to contest Election from any constituency.


Cedaw bangladesh

CEDAW & BANGLADESH

  • Ratified in November 6, 1984

  • Reservation article 2, 13(a)16(c) (f)

  • Women Movements: withdraw reservation on article 13 (a) and 16 (c)

  • A blow came from proponent party : NWDP

  • Opponent party (Islamic hardliners) went up against NWDP

  • NWDP: "anti-Koran" and "anti-Islamic".

  • They threaten greater violence in future.

Clerics protesting NWDP


Gains achieved in law policies and programe

GAINS ACHIEVED IN LAW, POLICIES AND PROGRAME

CEDAW activities have been carried out under 2 Categories:

  • Activities by the Government.

  • Activities by the Non-Government Organizations.


Cedaw activities by the government

CEDAW ACTIVITIES BY THE GOVERNMENT

Policies, Programs & Action Plans to Promote Gender Equality and Eliminate discrimination against Women by State Party.

  • “Vision 2021” program

  • Adoption of the National Action Plan(NAP)

  • Declaration NWDP

  • Formulation of Five-Year Plan.

  • Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action (PFA)

  • Government policy commitments: PRSP, MDG, CEDAW endorsement.


Miriam college manila philippines 25 oct 2011

  • Domestic Laws to realize the goal of CEDAW:

  • Dowry provision Act

  • Family Court Ordinance

  • Anti Terrorism Ordinance

  • Women and Children Anti-oppression Act 2000 passed

  • The Acid Crimes Control Act 2001

  • Formation of a 15-member ‘National Acid Control Council’ with its units in all districts

  • Establishment of special tribunal in every district to deal with the cases of ‘VAW’ and children at district levels.

  • The Domestic Violence Act (2010)


Miriam college manila philippines 25 oct 2011

Legislative Reforms & Measures

  • Bangladesh Labor Act (2006)

  • 14 amendments to the Constitution allowing an increase in women’s reserved seats from 30 to 45

  • The Representation of People’s (Amendment) Ordinance (2008)

  • The Citizenship (Amendment) Act (2009), entitling a Bangladeshi woman to transmit citizenship to her Children

  • The Right to Information Act (2009)

  • The National Human Rights Act (2009)


Miriam college manila philippines 25 oct 2011

  • Increasing opportunity for participation of women in the politics.

  • Reserved seats for women in Parliament and Local Government Institutions & UpazilaParishad.

  • Female Worker/activists in Political Party Increased

  • Women inclusion the Political Campaign Increased

  • National Council for Women Development

    (44 members, Headed by the Prime Minister)


Miriam college manila philippines 25 oct 2011

  • Establishment of Ministry of Women and Children Affairs (MOWCA)

  • Parliamentary Standing Committee on MOWCA

  • Women’s Development Implementation and Evaluation Committee

  • WID Focal Point

  • Setting Inter-Ministerial Coordination Committee headed by the Minister of State for Women and Children Affairs in 1994

  • Establishment of Women Investigation Centre to register and investigate complaints for VAW cases.

  • Establishment of Gender Responsive Budget to 10 Ministries in 2009-2011.


Ngo s multilateral agencies

NGO’s & Multilateral Agencies

  • Undertaking gender-specific programs to benefit women

  • Establishment of CEDAW sub-committee

  • NGO sub committees are organizing Meeting

  • Policy Advocacy, Lobbying.

  • Promoting Leadership in young women to be a talent political leader.

  • Reduces social problems: Early marriage, Dowry, Polygamy.


Reflections

REFLECTIONs ?

On 5 June, 2011, RumanaManzur, Assistant Professor of International Relations at the Dhaka University, became the victim of a horrific case of domestic violence when she was brutally attacked by her husband Hassan Syed, who allegedly beat her mercilessly, tried to gouge out her eyes and bit off part of her nose in a fit of rage.


Miriam college manila philippines 25 oct 2011

Women Member Parliament 1973-2008


Women in parliament under reserve seats 1 st 9 th

Women in Parliament under Reserve Seats (1st – 9th)

Participation of women in Parliament is very low with only 18.6% where directly elected is only 6.3%.


Women rarely occupy in decision making positions in party structures

Women rarely occupy in decision making positions in party structures

Female Members in the Party Hierarchy of Major Political parties in Bangladesh


Participation of women in local governance

Participation of Women in Local Governance

  • Bangladesh has made a room in world arena in terms of the highest level of women’s representation in urban councils with 28.4 % Representation.

  • Established 28% Participation in all Local Government tires, but the representation did not established.


The gaps in the implementation of cedaw

THE GAPS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CEDAW

  • Signed and ratified the Optional Protocol but it has not been implemented yet.

  • Was born on the very premise of ensuring equality amongst all its citizens: Constitution guarantees equal protection of the law. Guarantees that the State shall not discriminate any citizen on the ground of gender. But in reality it is not fully ensured.

  • There is huge Gander-gap in wages

  • There are many committees which are not yet fully activated.

  • Rural women are yet to know of the pros and cons of the Electoral System


Miriam college manila philippines 25 oct 2011

Social factors:

  • Poverty

  • Lack of access to resources & to political Party Lists

  • Low salaries, Discrimination in the work place,

    Political factors:

  • Lack of awareness of women’s issues & of institutions for Women’s Education in Politics

  • Lack of Platforms from which women’s demands can be made.


Challenges to be faced by the country

CHALLENGES TO BE FACED BY THE COUNTRY

  • Policies are in paper but null Implementation.

  • Lack of Political commitments and proper understanding of the Convention.

  • Legal obstacles

  • Reservation to substantive Articles of the Convention

  • Weak National machinery and lack of resources

  • Religious codicils : Fatwa

  • Men's’ age-old dominating role.

  • CEDAW overshadowed by MDGs


Miriam college manila philippines 25 oct 2011

  • Cultural factor& Religious fanaticism

  • Unfair Party nomination process

  • Election system

  • Threat of “character assassination whisper and innuendo” damaging the honor of women concerned.

  • Political violence & killing restricts women role in over all politics.

  • Aggressive electioneering tactic practiced dissuade women from entering into a political career.

  • Women have to comply with extensive domestic role in the HH maintain a public life is an extra burden.


Strategies

STRATEGIES

  • Introduction quota system as an affirmative action.

  • Election System

  • Responsive and Responsible role of election commission and judiciary.

  • Nomination Method within Political Parties .

  • Political Commitment

  • Remove Legal Obstacle.

  • Withdrawal of Reservations

  • Assessment of progress of women and implementation of CEDAW.


Miriam college manila philippines 25 oct 2011

  • International standards of national lows, policies and provisions

  • Affirmative agendas of political parties

  • Coping mechanisms

  • Synergized policy influencing actions

  • Collaboration


Conclusions

CONCLUSIONS

Future society will progress only if women are men are Equal. Not doing so is like running a race with only one leg or thinking with only half a brain.

Women’s Active political participation will improve dramatically the current politics. Once women’s participation reaches parity, Traditional Male Centered Politics characterized by Authority, Domination, Corruption and Violence will yield to Politics characterized by love, caring, cooperation, sacrifice & honesty.


Miriam college manila philippines 25 oct 2011

Thank You!!!


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