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Grappling To Understand One’s Identity:. Singapore’s Broadcast and Media Content Policies’ Impact on its Citizenship Education and the Affect on the Growing Muslim Population.

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Grappling to understand one s identity

Grappling To Understand One’s Identity:

Singapore’s Broadcast and Media Content Policies’ Impact on its Citizenship Education and the Affect on the Growing Muslim Population

By: Marissa Citro, Independent Consultant on Asian Citizenship Ed., [email protected], SIS 645, American University


Executive summary introduction
Executive Summary: Introduction

  • Singapore as a ‘tiger economy.’

  • Population is very ethnically, racially and religiously diverse

  • Q: What kind of content is projected and/or permitted to be broadcasted across the media?

  • This impacts one’s educational and religious identity.



Singapore s media content broadcast policies overview
Singapore’s Media Content & Broadcast Policies: Overview

  • Content that contains explicit violence or sexual activity

  • Affiliations with a certain ethnic, social, or religious group


Singapore s media content broadcast policies example 2011 parliamentary elections
Singapore’s Media Content & Broadcast Policies: Example-2011 Parliamentary Elections

  • First time PAP allows oppositional content to be broadcasted via TV and internet.

  • Result:

    • PAP’s popularity drops significantly

    • Population very much engaged with democratic process.


Impact on citizenship education overview
Impact on Citizenship Education: Overview

  • Q: What is citizenship education?

  • A: How a certain individual,

    • influenced by formal (academic) and/or informal (non-academic) content, curricula, culture, nationality, etc.

  • devises his/her own identity.

  • An identity can be associated with one’s religion, nationality, race, gender, culture and/or ethnicity.


  • Impact on citizenship education singapore i
    Impact on Citizenship Education: Singapore (I)

    • Political engagement and debate is looked down upon in the academic world.

    • Theoretical background of religious populations in Singapore-no controversial issues are up for discussion.


    Impact on citizenship education singapore ii example
    Impact on Citizenship Education: Singapore (II)- Example

    • Emphasis on Singaporean Nationalistic Identity through:

      • Curricular content

      • Media

      • Recognition of national holidays.


    Consequential affect on the singaporean muslim population overview i
    Consequential Affect on the Singaporean Muslim Population: Overview (I)

    • Revivalism and resurgence in number of believers for all religions in Singapore.

    • By the numbers: Buddhists (42.5%), followed by Muslims (14.9%), Christians (14.6%), Taoists (8.5%) and Hindus (4.0%)

      (Singapore Department of Statistics, 2000).


    Consequential affect on the singaporean muslim population overview ii
    Consequential Affect on the Singaporean Muslim Population: Overview (II)

    • Muslims tend to cling to religious identity.

    • About 99.6% of Singaporean Malays call themselves Muslim (Tan, 2007).

    • Strong believers in Religious Ed.

    • Very politically active population.



    Conclusions i the pap and the government
    Conclusions (I): the PAP and the government Example-Jeremiah

    • PAP & government encourages onenational identity through media and education policies.

    • Citizens have become more engaged in the democratic process despite academic objectives of complacency.

    • PAP is more than willing to ostracize any other group that is gaining power.


    Conclusions ii the singaporean muslim population
    Conclusions (II): the Singaporean Muslim Population Example-Jeremiah

    • Muslims have strong connection to religious identity.

    • Muslims are not alone in desire to be more politically active.

    • Situation makes it difficult for one to devise own identity because of multicultural population mixed with strong emphasis on one identity.


    Conclusions iii global communication policy models
    Conclusions ( Example-Jeremiah III): Global Communication Policy Models


    Recommendations to taf
    Recommendations to TAF Example-Jeremiah

    • Encourage Policies in Media and Education Reforms that Reflect the Pluralism and Diversity.

    • Provide Materials to aid in this Transformation.

    • Oversee Operations With an Unbiased Perspective.


    Opportunities for further research international implications
    Opportunities For Further Research & International Implications

    • Research the Situation of Other Religious and Ethnically Minority Groups of Singapore.

    • The Impact of Future Regulations and Policies in the Media.

    • Consider the Identities that are Being Projected In Other Similar Asian Nations.


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