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Revolutions 5/13/13 http://mrmilewski.com. OBJECTIVE: Examine “The Trigger Effect ”. MCSS WH-6.1.1 I. Administrative Stuff -Attendance II. CONNECTIONS -questions on episode#1 “The Trigger Effect” III. Homework due Monday 5/20/13 1.) Read Chapter#18 section#4 p.470-473

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Revolutions 5 13 13 http mrmilewski com

Revolutions 5/13/13http://mrmilewski.com

  • OBJECTIVE: Examine “The Trigger Effect”. MCSS WH-6.1.1

  • I. Administrative Stuff

    -Attendance

  • II. CONNECTIONS

    -questions on episode#1 “The Trigger Effect”

  • III. Homework due Monday 5/20/13

    1.) Read Chapter#18 section#4 p.470-473

    -Answer questions (1-7)* p.473

    2.) Chapter#18 Review

    *Pick 4 questions of your choice

  • NOTICE: Journals#11-20 Due Thursday May 16th

  • NOTICE: Chapter#18 Test Monday May 20th


Revolutions 5 14 13 http mrmilewski com

Revolutions 5/14/13http://mrmilewski.com

  • OBJECTIVE: Examine the American Revolution. MCSS WH-6.2.1

  • I. Journal#19pt.A

    -Examine the map on p.472

    -Answer the map questions on p.472

  • II. Journal#19pt.B

    -notes on the Birth of the United States

  • III. Homework Due Monday 5/20/13

    1.) Read Chapter#18 section#4 p.470-473

    -Answer questions (1-7)* p.473

    2.) Chapter#18 Review

    *Pick 4 questions of your choice

  • NOTICE: Journals#11-20 Due Thursday May 16th

  • NOTICE: Chapter#18 Test Monday May 20th


The seven years war

The Seven Years War

  • After the French & Indian War the colonists were taxed by Parliament for the cost of the war.

  • The colonists were unhappy with this.

  • Laws passed long before were enforced & new tax laws were passed.

http://www.hist-sdc.com/fiw/images/cover.jpg


Boston massacre

Boston Massacre

  • In 1770, British soldiers in Boston open fired on a crowd throwing rocks & snowballs at them.

  • In 1773, some colonists dressed up like Indians and threw tea in Boston Harbor.

  • Parliament passed harsh laws to punish Massachusetts.

  • The other 12 colonies took the side of those in Massachusetts.

http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/thumb/0/09/350px-Boston_Massacre.jpg


War begins

War Begins

  • In 1775, the shot heard round the world was the start of the revolution.

  • On July 4, 1776, Congress sent a letter to King George III that basically said forget you we are independent.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ae/Lexington_Minute_Man_relief_(Basha_Paeff)_-_Lexington,_MA.JPG/800px-Lexington_Minute_Man_relief_(Basha_Paeff)_-_Lexington,_MA.JPG


Battle of saratoga

Battle of Saratoga

  • The turning point in the war was when the American forces defeated the British at the Battle of Saratoga.

  • This victory convinced the French to join the war on the side of the colonists.

http://artfiles.art.com/images/-/Fauvel/The-Surrender-of-General-John-Burgoyne-at-the-Battle-of-Saratoga-7th-October-1777-Giclee-Print-C12637774.jpeg


Treaty of paris

Treaty of Paris

  • In 1781, with the help of the French (yes, the French were a world power at one point), Washington forced the surrender of the British at Yorktown.

  • Two years later, American, French, and British signed the Treaty of Paris that officially ended the war.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/Treaty_of_Paris_by_Benjamin_West_1783.jpg


Articles of confederation

Articles of Confederation

  • The national document set up to run the country was too weak to govern the nation effectively.

  • In 1787, the nations leaders met in Philadelphia and wrote the Constitution.

  • This broad frame work incorporated the enlightenment ideas and has allowed for flexibility for the last 200 years.

http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/constitution-day/images/constitution-01.gif


The constitution

The Constitution

  • It was the most liberal form of government when it became law in 1789.

  • An elected representative body consisting of two houses was created to make laws.

  • An executive was created that was elected as opposed to being heredity.

  • These two parts, plus the judicial branch were derived from Montesquieu.

  • The federal republic was supreme to the state governments.

  • Later the first ten amendments were added, also known as the Bill of Rights it guaranteed citizens basic rights (Free speech, free press, trial by jury, and private property).


Revolutions 5 15 13 http mrmilewski com

Revolutions 5/15/13http://mrmilewski.com

  • OBJECTIVE: Begin examination of the French Revolution. MCSS WH-6.2.1

  • I. Journal#20pt.A

    -Read “The French Revolution & Napoleon” p.478-479

    -Answer the caption question on p.479

  • II. Journal #20pt.B

    -notes on the beginning of the French Revolution

  • III. Homework Due Monday 5/20/13

    1.) Read Chapter#18 section#4 p.470-473

    -Answer questions (1-7)* p.473

    2.) Chapter#18 Review

    *Pick 4 questions of your choice

  • NOTICE: Journals#11-20 Due TOMORROW!

  • NOTICE: Chapter#18 Test Monday May 20th


Beginnings of revolution

Beginnings of Revolution

  • In the year 1789 Réveillon was the casualty of his own ill-digested reflections on modern economics.

  • “Since bread was the foundation of our national economy' its distribution should be deregulated, permitting lower prices. That in turn would allow lower wage costs, lower manufacturing prices and brisk consumption.”

  • On April 28, 1789 his mansion was destroyed, all the wallpaper, glue, furniture and paintings were burned, except 2,000 bottles of wine.

  • Réveillon and his family escaped.

  • It was a bloody day, some say 25 other believe 900 people died. The rioters were savagely repressed, in an opening episode of the French Revolution.

http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en-commons/thumb/4/47/350px-Montgolfiere_1783.jpg

FYI: October 19, 1783, First hot air balloon launch from Reveillon’s garden.


The riot

The Riot

  • Aristocrats returning from the race track through the neighborhood where the riot had occurred thought those responsible would be hung and life would continue as it had.

  • WRONG!! By July, the hungry, unemployed, or poorly paid residents of Paris had taken up arms.


The french revolution

The French Revolution

  • The corrupt governments of Louis, XIV, XV, & XVI had racked up a huge debt, and caused an economic crisis.

  • The French people, were divided into 3 estates. The first two paid no taxes.

http://www.wga.hu/art/c/callet/louis_16.jpg


The estates

The Estates

  • The Old Regime

  • 1st estate – Clergy

    -owned 10% of the land & paid no taxes

  • 2nd estate – Nobility

    -owned 20% of the land & paid no taxes

    -had land, but no money

  • 3rd estate – “Peasants”

    27 million people

    98% of the population

    -divided into 3 parts


The 3 rd estate

The 3rd Estate

  • Part I – The Bourgeoisie

    -prosperous middle class

    -were rich, but had no political power

  • Part II – Rural Peasants

    -9 out of 10 people in France

    -some were rich land owners, but not part of the nobility

    -most were poor tenant farmers & day laborers

  • Part III – Urban Workers

    -poorest members of French society

    -most were unemployed & turned to crime to survive


The haves v the have nots

The Haves

-1st estate

-2nd estate

-3rd estate Pt.I

The Have-nots

-3rd estate (most of pt.II)

-3rd estate pt.III

The Haves v. the Have-nots


The lives of the have nots

The Lives of the Have-nots

  • Low wages meant the slightest rise in the price of bread could lead to starvation

  • They paid all the taxes in the nation

  • They had no voice in government

  • They were technically free, but the nobility re-imposed manor fees.

  • They had no right to hunt even the animals that ate their crops.

http://www.alons.geomerx.com/grfx/MediaVault/product26_1739.jpg


Formula

Formula

  • Social unrest (Enlightenment ideas)

  • +financial crisis (deficit spending)

  • REVOLUTION!


4 phases of the french revolution

4 phases of the French Revolution

  • National Assembly

    -(1789-1791)

    -Constitutional Monarchy

  • Reign of Terror

    -(1792-1794)

    -Radical Phase

  • Directory

    -(1795-1799)

    -Reaction to Extremism

  • Age of Napoleon

    -(1799-1815)

    -Consolidation of Change

http://www.revelation-today.com/FrRev02.jpg


Revolutions 5 16 13 http mrmilewski com

Revolutions 5/16/13http://mrmilewski.com

  • OBJECTIVE: Examine the Old Regime & the beginnings of the French Revolution. MCSS WH-6.2.1

  • I. Administrative Stuff

    -attendance

    -Journals#11-20 Due!

  • II. CONNECTIONS

    -questions on episode#2:

  • III. Homework Due Monday 5/20/13

    1.) Read Chapter#18 section#4 p.470-473

    -Answer questions (1-7)* p.473

    2.) Chapter#18 Review

    *Pick 4 questions of your choice

  • NOTICE: Chapter#18 Test Monday May 20th


Revolutions 5 17 13 http mrmilewski com

Revolutions 5/17/13http://mrmilewski.com

  • OBJECTIVE: Examine the Old Regime & the beginnings of the French Revolution. MCSS WH-6.2.1

  • I. Journal#21pt.A

    -Examine the Chart on p.481

    -Answer questions (1-2) p.481

  • II. Journal#21pt.B

    -notes on the French Revolution

  • III. Homework Due Monday 5/20/13

    1.) Read Chapter#18 section#4 p.470-473

    -Answer questions (1-7)* p.473

    2.) Chapter#18 Review

    *Pick 4 questions of your choice

  • NOTICE: Chapter#18 Test Monday May 20th


The french economic crisis

The French Economic Crisis

  • The corrupt governments of Louis, XIV, XV, & XVI had racked up a huge debt, and caused an economic crisis.

  • Louis XVI was weak and indecisive, but he made a wise decision in choosing Jacques Necker to be his financial advisor.

  • He advised the king to cut spending and tax the 1st & 2nd estates.

  • The nobles were outraged and forced the King to dismiss Necker.

  • As the crisis got worse, the nobles pressured the king to summon the Estates General.

http://www.swisscastles.ch/vaud/coppet/coppetphoto/JaNecker.JPG


Estates general

Estates General

  • The Estates General was similar to Parliament in England, but it never gained the same amount of power.

  • The body was more advisory than governing.

  • The Estates General called by Louis XVI was the first one to met for 175 years.

  • The reasons why the King didn’t call them was because they were afraid that the throne could possibly lose some of the absolute power it had.

  • Reform minded nobles sought to use the Estates General in 1789 to protect their privileged status, establish a Constitution, and make the king a limited monarch.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b7/Ouverture_des_États_généraux_de_1789_à_Versailles.jpg


Estates general1

Estates General

  • In May 1789, the Estates General met at Versailles.

  • The estates brought their list of grievances (cahiers) to the meeting.

  • Among the demands were fairer taxes, freedom of the press, and regular meetings of the Estates General.

  • From the beginning, the Estates General was at an impasse over voting.

  • Traditionally each estate met separately and voted as a group. This allowed the 1st & 2nd estate to out vote the 3rd estate 2 to 1.

  • The 3rd estate wanted to meet together.

http://artfiles.art.com/images/-/Jan-Bulthuis/Opening-of-the-Estates-General-at-Versailles-5th-May-1789-Giclee-Print-C12067230.jpeg


National assembly

National Assembly

  • The 3rd estate took a bold step after weeks of stalemate.

  • They formed the National Assembly, invited members of the other estates to join them in drawing up a constitution.

  • A few reform minded clergy & nobles joined them.

  • The National Assembly found themselves locked out of their meeting place.

  • On June 20, 1789, they met on the tennis court and took the famous “Tennis Court Oath” in which they vowed not to disband until they had written a constitution.

http://sourcebook.fsc.edu/history/tenniscourtoath.jpg


Problems continue

Problems Continue

  • As the financial crisis worsened, the King brought back Necker in early July.

  • Food shortages got worse as the full effect of the poor harvest of 1788 were felt.

  • On July 14, 1789, 800 Parisians assembled outside the Bastille & demanded weapons & gunpowder because it was rumored that royal troops were going to occupy the capital.

  • The commander of the Bastille refused and ordered the troops to open fire on the crowd.

http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/hist255/kat_anna/bastille_c%20copy1.jpg


Bastille day

Bastille Day

  • After many people were killed, the mob was able to break through the defenses, kill the commander, 5 guards, and released some prisoners, but they found no weapons.

  • When Louis XVI found out, he asked “Is this a revolt?” A noble replied, “No sire, it is a revolution.”

  • This was seen as a major step against tyranny and is celebrated as a national holiday in France (July 14th)

http://www.sophiesdiary.net/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderpictures/bastille-2.gif


Famine

Famine

  • As the political crisis grew, the food shortage grew worse.

  • Starving peasants from the countryside flocked to cities were they joined the growing ranks of the unemployed.

  • Those with jobs had to spend up to 80% of their income on bread.

  • Rumors of bands of starving peasants terrorizing townspeople and stories of troops seizing crops led to what became known as the “Great Fear”

http://revolution-francaise.net/images/reichardt/15.jpg


Marquis de lafayette

Marquis de Lafayette

  • Peasant attacks on nobles and riots in Paris led to the creation of the National Guard.

  • The head of this mostly middle class militia that was organized in response to the arrival of royal troops in Paris was headed by the aristocrat Marquis de Lafayette.

  • He was seen as a hero of the 2nd & 3rd estates.

  • He had fought side by side with George Washington in the American Revolution.

  • As a more radical group, the Paris Commune replaced the royalist city government whole neighborhoods could be mobilized for protests or violent actions.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/26/Marquis_de_Lafayette_3.jpg/492px-Marquis_de_Lafayette_3.jpg


Liberty equality fraternity

Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

  • The uprisings and the storming of the Bastille forced the National Assembly to act.

  • On August 4, 1789, the nobles voted to end their special privileges (manor dues, hunting, special legal status, & tax exempt status).

  • In late August, the assembly issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man.

  • It was the first step to writing a constitution and was based on the American Declaration of Independence.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a0/Declaration_of_Human_Rights.jpg


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