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# Properties and classification of matter - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Properties and classification of matter. What is matter?. All matter is composed of particles ( atoms , ions or molecules ). 6. We will be studying states of matter: solids liquids gases There is also plasma, liquid crystal and Bose-Einstein condensates. Mass.

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### Properties and classification of matter

• We will be studying states of matter:

• solids

• liquids

• gases

• There is also plasma, liquid crystal and Bose-Einstein condensates

– the quantity of particles in a substance

- mesured in kg or pounds

–the quantity of space occupied by a substance

- mesured in cm3 or mL

Volume

Solids

Liquids

• The particles are very close together

• There is a high force of attraction between the particles

• Possess a definedmass (does not change)

Possess a definedform (does not change)

• The particles don’t spread out in a container

• Cannot be invisible

The particles don’t move around, but they can vibrate. The force of gravity is always pushing on the particles.

• The particles are close together, but there is space between them.

The force of attraction between the particles is less than that of solids. The particles can easily move around.

• Possess a defined mass

Possess a defined volume

• The particles spread out in a container (they take the container’s form, so their form is indefinite).

• Cannot be invisible

Particles can move easily

• The particles are very spread out.

• Possess an undefined volume.

The force of attraction is very small, as is the force of gravity.

• Possess an undefinedmass (as the particles are always moving)

Possess an undefinedform (take the form of their container)

???

• The particles spread out in a container (take its form)

• Can be invisible

The particles can easily move around

• Mass?

• Volume?

• Form?

• Attraction?

• Particles?

• Invisible?

• Take the form of the container?

defined

defined

defined

high

close together

no

no

defined

• Mass?

• Volume?

• Form?

• Attraction?

• Particles?

• Invisible?

• Take the form of the container?

defined

undefined

somewhat attracted

somewhat spaced out

no

yes

• Mass?

• Volume?

• Form?

• Attraction?

• Particles?

• Invisible?

• Take the form of the container?

undefined

undefined

undefined

a little

yes/no

yes

Liquid and/or Gas??

Particles move quickly

Gas

Particles only vibrate

Solid

Takes the form of its container

Gas and Liquid

The particles are very spread out

Gas

Defined mass

Solid and Liquid

Very little attraction between the particles

Gas

Does not take the form of its container

Solid

Defined masse and volume

Solid and Liquid

Not affected by gravity

Gas

Defined masse, defined volume, undefined form

Liquid

Undefined Volume

Gas

Strong attraction between particles

Solid

Particles can move around

Gas and Liquid

Defined masse, defined volume, defined form

Solid

- See page 156 of Science Power 9

• Exists at very high temperatures

• Exists in nature

• Used in atomic lasers

• Examples:

• The Sun’s nucleus

• Stars

• Flashes of lightning

• The lowest state of matter

• Exists at very cold termperatures only

• Absolute Zero (0°Kelvin = -273 °Celsius)

• All particle movement stops

• A SUPER SOLID is formed!!

Condensate

SOLIDIFICATION

SUBLIMATION

EVAPORATION

MELTING

Bose-Einstein

Condensate

of Matter

Mixtures

Pure

Substances

• A pure substance pure is made up of one type of particle (atoms or molecules)

• Water

• Chlorine

• Oxygen

• Contain 2+ different types of particles that do not chemically react. They maintain their chemical characteristics but their physical properties may change.

• Can be heterogenous or homogenous

• Examples:

• Sugar and water

• Salt and pepper

• Gold ring

• Diet Coke

Mixture

Element Compound

Homogeneous Heterogeneous

All particles are identical.

There is more than one type of particle

Mixtures

Pure

Substances

Mechanical Mixtures

Solutions

the Mixture

DietPepsi

Heterogenous

Flat DietPepsi

Homogenous

Black coffee

Homogenous

Dirt

Heterogenous

Sugar

Homogenous

The air in New York

Heterogenous

Sand

Heterogenous

Aluminum foil

Homogenous

Sugar & water

Homogenous

Spaghetti

Heterogenous

Paint

Heterogenous

Mayonnaise

Homogenous

Alcohol

Homogenous/

Heterogenous

Chocolate chip ice cream

Heterogenous

Heterogenous

Vegetable Soup

Heterogenous

Mixtures

Pure

Substances

Mechanical Mixtures

Solutions

Heterogenous

Homogenous

• Homogenous mixtures are called solutions

• Heterogenous mixtures are called mechanical mixtures

Types of Mixtures1. Mechanical Mixtures -They are heterogeneous (have two or more visible parts). The two different types of substances are easy to see and can be easily separated.a) Mechanical mixtures - two solids mixed together; e.g., sand and rocks, wood chips and beads.b) Suspensions - a solid and a liquid which mix but settle upon standing; e.g., silt and water.

http://mrmcclung.ca/substances/substanceshome.html

c) Colloids- are homogeneous mixtures that are made of particles of one substance suspended into another. The suspended particles get stuck in the spaces of the other particles. This allows them to scatter light. Colloids will show the Tyndall Effect.

Examples of colloids are: butter, mayonnaise, steam, clouds, fog, egg white, paint, smoke, whipped cream, shaving cream, gel, hair mousse, homogenized milk

http://mrmcclung.ca/substances/substanceshome.html

Some mixtures that appear to be solutions may prove not to be solutions after all. If the path of a bright light shining through a mixture can easily be seen, then that mixture is not a solution.

A non-solution contains particles large enough to scatter or reflect light, showing the path of light as it passes through the mixture. This scattering of light is called the Tyndall Effect. True solutions do not show the Tyndall Effect.

http://mrmcclung.ca/substances/substanceshome.html

2. Solutions- have minute particles that do not settle out. They are homogeneous transparent (can see through) with a solute is dissolved into a solvent

Examples:

• Non-transparent (ie. Alloys – a homogeneous mixture of a metal with one or more metals or non-metals . Example: a nickel – 75% copper and 25% nickel

• Transparent – salt water

http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htmhttp://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

Properties http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

of Matter

Matterhttp://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

• Definition: All substances which possess a masse and a volume

• All matter possesses physical and chemical properties

Chemical Propertieshttp://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

• All properties which can produce a new substance

Chemical Propertieshttp://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

• Examples:

• A reaction with a substance which produces water

• Flammability

• Neutralizing an acid

• Rotting

• Corrosion

Chemical Propertieshttp://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

• Examples cont…

• A reaction with water which produces a gas

• The neutralization of a base

• A reaction with oxygen

• Electromotivity (Electricity can move through it)

Physical Propertieshttp://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

• All properties which we can observe or mesure which do not create a new substance

Physical Propertieshttp://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

• Boiling point

• Melting point

• Density

• Taste

• Color

Physical Propertieshttp://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

• Solubility (the ability to dissolve)

• Hardness

• Odor

• Luster (reflection of light)

Classification of propertieshttp://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

Changeshttp://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

• All matter undergoes chemical and physical changes

Changehttp://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

Chemical

Physical

Does not modify

modifies

The nature of the substance

Don’t forget!! http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

Indications of Chemical Changehttp://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

1. Formation of a gas

2. Formation of a precipitate (solid)

3. Color change

4. Production of heat and or light

Indications of Physical Changehttp://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

1. Change of shape

2. Change of phase (state of matter)

Indications of Physical Changehttp://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

• If we can http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htmreverse the change, it is a physical change.

• Ex: water + salt = salt water

• BUT: We can boil water and separate the water from the salt.

•  * Physical change* 

Classify the changehttp://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

Le fer se rouille

Changement

Chimique

Classify the changehttp://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

Un oeuf est cassé

Changement

Physique

Classify the changehttp://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

L’hydroxde de sodium se dissout dans l’eau

Changement

Physique

Classify the changehttp://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

Un bougie brûle

Changement

Chimique

Classify the changehttp://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

Un glaçon fonde

Changement

Physique

Classify the changehttp://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

Les pétards s’explosent

Changement

Chimique

Classifier les changements http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

Les stalactites de glace (icicles) forment

Changement

Physique

L’eau est chauffé et devient la vapeurhttp://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm

Changement

Physique

Du lait qui http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htmtourne (sours)

Changement

Chimique

Tu laves ton chien http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htmavec du savon et de l’eau

Changement

Physique

Une barre de http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htmchocolat qui fonde

Changement

Physique

On coupe lehttp://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htmfromage

Changement

Physique

Changement

Chimique

Changement

Chimique

La bouilloire commence à bouillir (baking soda)

Changement

Physique

Le forgeron forme (baking soda)un fer à cheval

Changement

Physique

Le bois qui (baking soda)pourrit (rotting)

Changement

Chimique

Ton chat fume (baking soda)

une cigarette

Changement

Chimique