Properties and classification of matter
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Properties and classification of matter. What is matter?. All matter is composed of particles ( atoms , ions or molecules ). 6. We will be studying states of matter: solids liquids gases There is also plasma, liquid crystal and Bose-Einstein condensates. Mass.

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Properties and classification of matter

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Properties and classification of matter


What is matter?


  • All matter is composed of particles (atoms, ions or molecules).


6

  • We will be studying states of matter:

  • solids

  • liquids

  • gases

  • There is also plasma, liquid crystal and Bose-Einstein condensates


Mass

– the quantity of particles in a substance

- mesured in kg or pounds

–the quantity of space occupied by a substance

- mesured in cm3 or mL

Volume

Solids

Liquids


SOLIDS

  • The particles are very close together

  • There is a high force of attraction between the particles


SOLIDS

  • Possess a definedmass (does not change)

    Possess a definedform (does not change)


SOLIDS

  • The particles don’t spread out in a container

  • Cannot be invisible

    The particles don’t move around, but they can vibrate. The force of gravity is always pushing on the particles.


LIQUIDS

  • The particles are close together, but there is space between them.

    The force of attraction between the particles is less than that of solids. The particles can easily move around.


LIQUIDS

  • Possess a defined mass

    Possess a defined volume


LIQUIDS

  • The particles spread out in a container (they take the container’s form, so their form is indefinite).

  • Cannot be invisible

    Particles can move easily


GASES

  • The particles are very spread out.

  • Possess an undefined volume.

    The force of attraction is very small, as is the force of gravity.


GASES

  • Possess an undefinedmass (as the particles are always moving)

    Possess an undefinedform (take the form of their container)

???


GASES

  • The particles spread out in a container (take its form)

  • Can be invisible

    The particles can easily move around


Review: Solids

  • Mass?

  • Volume?

  • Form?

  • Attraction?

  • Particles?

  • Invisible?

  • Take the form of the container?

defined

defined

defined

high

close together

no

no


Review: Liquids

defined

  • Mass?

  • Volume?

  • Form?

  • Attraction?

  • Particles?

  • Invisible?

  • Take the form of the container?

defined

undefined

somewhat attracted

somewhat spaced out

no

yes


Review:Gases

  • Mass?

  • Volume?

  • Form?

  • Attraction?

  • Particles?

  • Invisible?

  • Take the form of the container?

undefined

undefined

undefined

a little

spread out

yes/no

yes


Review: Solid,

Liquid and/or Gas??


Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Particles move quickly

Gas


Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Particles only vibrate

Solid


Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Takes the form of its container

Gas and Liquid


Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

The particles are very spread out

Gas


Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Defined mass

Solid and Liquid


Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Very little attraction between the particles

Gas


Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Does not take the form of its container

Solid


Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Defined masse and volume

Solid and Liquid


Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Not affected by gravity

Gas


Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Defined masse, defined volume, undefined form

Liquid


Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Undefined Volume

Gas


Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Strong attraction between particles

Solid


Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Particles can move around

Gas and Liquid


Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Defined masse, defined volume, defined form

Solid


The particle theory of matter

- See page 156 of Science Power 9


Plasma

  • Exists at very high temperatures

  • Exists in nature

  • Used in atomic lasers

  • Examples:

    • The Sun’s nucleus

    • Stars

    • Flashes of lightning


Plasma!!


Bose-Einstein Condensates

  • The lowest state of matter

  • Exists at very cold termperatures only

  • Absolute Zero (0°Kelvin = -273 °Celsius)

  • All particle movement stops

  • A SUPER SOLID is formed!!


Bose-Einstein

Condensate


CONDENSATION

SOLIDIFICATION

SUBLIMATION

EVAPORATION

MELTING

Bose-Einstein

Condensate


Properties

of Matter


The classification of matter


Matter

Mixtures

Pure

Substances


Pure Substances

  • A pure substance pure is made up of one type of particle (atoms or molecules)

  • Water

  • Chlorine

  • Oxygen


Mixtures

  • Contain 2+ different types of particles that do not chemically react. They maintain their chemical characteristics but their physical properties may change.

    • Can be heterogenous or homogenous

  • Examples:

    • Sugar and water

    • Salt and pepper

    • Gold ring

    • Diet Coke


Pure substances

Mixture

ElementCompound

Homogeneous Heterogeneous

All particles are identical.

There is more than one type of particle


Matter

Mixtures

Pure

Substances

Mechanical Mixtures

Solutions


Types of Mixtures


Classify

the Mixture


Classify the Mixture

DietPepsi

Heterogenous


Classify the Mixture

Flat DietPepsi

Homogenous


Classify the Mixture

Black coffee

Homogenous


Classify the Mixture

Dirt

Heterogenous


Classify the Mixture

Sugar

Homogenous


Classify the Mixture

The air in New York

Heterogenous


Classify the Mixture

Sand

Heterogenous


Classify the Mixture

Aluminum foil

Homogenous


Classify the Mixture

Sugar & water

Homogenous


Classify the Mixture

Spaghetti

Heterogenous


Classify the Mixture

Paint

Heterogenous


Classify the Mixture

Mayonnaise

Homogenous


Classify the Mixture

Alcohol

Homogenous/

Heterogenous


Classify the Mixture

Chocolate chip ice cream

Heterogenous


Classify the Mixture

Oil and vinagar salad dressing

Heterogenous


Classify the Mixture

Vegetable Soup

Heterogenous


Matter

Mixtures

Pure

Substances

Mechanical Mixtures

Solutions

Heterogenous

Homogenous


Types of Mixtures

  • Homogenous mixtures are called solutions

  • Heterogenous mixtures are called mechanical mixtures


Types of Mixtures1. Mechanical Mixtures -They are heterogeneous (have two or more visible parts). The two different types of substances are easy to see and can be easily separated.a) Mechanical mixtures - two solids mixed together; e.g., sand and rocks, wood chips and beads.b) Suspensions - a solid and a liquid which mix but settle upon standing; e.g., silt and water.

http://mrmcclung.ca/substances/substanceshome.html


Types of mixtures

c) Colloids- are homogeneous mixtures that are made of particles of one substance suspended into another. The suspended particles get stuck in the spaces of the other particles. This allows them to scatter light. Colloids will show the Tyndall Effect.

Examples of colloids are: butter, mayonnaise, steam, clouds, fog, egg white, paint, smoke, whipped cream, shaving cream, gel, hair mousse, homogenized milk

http://mrmcclung.ca/substances/substanceshome.html


Tyndal Effect

Some mixtures that appear to be solutions may prove not to be solutions after all. If the path of a bright light shining through a mixture can easily be seen, then that mixture is not a solution.

A non-solution contains particles large enough to scatter or reflect light, showing the path of light as it passes through the mixture. This scattering of light is called the Tyndall Effect. True solutions do not show the Tyndall Effect.

http://mrmcclung.ca/substances/substanceshome.html


2. Solutions- have minute particles that do not settle out. They are homogeneous transparent (can see through) with a solute is dissolved into a solvent

Examples:

  • Non-transparent (ie. Alloys – a homogeneous mixture of a metal with one or more metals or non-metals . Example: a nickel – 75% copper and 25% nickel

  • Transparent – salt water


http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/suspensions_colloids.htm


Your turn!


Properties

of Matter


Matter

  • Definition: All substances which possess a masse and a volume

  • All matter possesses physical and chemical properties


Chemical Properties

  • All properties which can produce a new substance


Chemical Properties

  • Examples:

    • A reaction with a substance which produces water

    • Flammability

    • Neutralizing an acid

    • Rotting

    • Corrosion


Chemical Properties

  • Examples cont…

    • A reaction with water which produces a gas

    • The neutralization of a base

    • A reaction with oxygen

    • Electromotivity (Electricity can move through it)


Physical Properties

  • All properties which we can observe or mesure which do not create a new substance


Physical Properties

  • Boiling point

  • Melting point

  • Density

  • Taste

  • Color


Physical Properties

  • Solubility (the ability to dissolve)

  • Hardness

  • Odor

  • Luster (reflection of light)


Classification of properties


Changes

  • All matter undergoes chemical and physical changes


Change

Chemical

Physical

Does not modify

modifies

The nature of the substance


Don’t forget!! 


Indications of Chemical Change

1. Formation of a gas

2. Formation of a precipitate (solid)

3. Color change

4. Production of heat and or light


Indications of Physical Change

1. Change of shape

2. Change of phase (state of matter)


Indications of Physical Change


  • If we can reverse the change, it is a physical change.

  • Ex: water + salt = salt water

  • BUT: We can boil water and separate the water from the salt.

  •  * Physical change* 


Your turn…….


Classify the change

Le fer se rouille

Changement

Chimique


Classify the change

Un oeuf est cassé

Changement

Physique


Classify the change

L’hydroxde de sodium se dissout dans l’eau

Changement

Physique


Classify the change

Un bougie brûle

Changement

Chimique


Classify the change

Un glaçon fonde

Changement

Physique


Classify the change

Les pétards s’explosent

Changement

Chimique


Classifier les changements 

Les stalactites de glace (icicles) forment

Changement

Physique


L’eau est chauffé et devient la vapeur

Changement

Physique


Du lait qui tourne (sours)

Changement

Chimique


Tu laves ton chien avec du savon et de l’eau

Changement

Physique


Une barre de chocolat qui fonde

Changement

Physique


On coupe lefromage

Changement

Physique


L’acide sur le calcaire (limestone) produit le dioxyde de carbone

Changement

Chimique


Une réaction entre le vinaigre et le bicarbonate de soude (baking soda)

Changement

Chimique


La bouilloire commence à bouillir

Changement

Physique


Le forgeron forme un fer à cheval

Changement

Physique


Le bois qui pourrit (rotting)

Changement

Chimique


Ton chat fume

une cigarette

Changement

Chimique


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