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NexGen. NexGen NPOESS Wind Observing Sounder: NASA/GSFC IDL Study and Findings. Prepared for Mr. Dan Stockton, Program Executive Officer Program Executive Office for Environmental Satellites Presented by Dr. Wayman Baker NOAA/NASA/DoD Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation and

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nexgen npoess wind observing sounder nasa gsfc idl study and findings

NexGen

NexGenNPOESS Wind Observing Sounder: NASA/GSFC IDL Study and Findings

Prepared for

Mr. Dan Stockton, Program Executive Officer

Program Executive Office for Environmental Satellites

Presented by

Dr. Wayman Baker

NOAA/NASA/DoD Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation

and

Mr. Bruce Gentry

NASA/GSFC/Laboratory for Atmospheres

Working Group for Space Based Wind Lidar

Wintergreen, VA

overview

NexGen

Overview
  • Background
  • Why Measure Global Winds from Space?
  • Wind Lidar Societal Benefits
  • NOAA Programs Requiring Atmospheric Winds
  • Space-based Wind Lidar Roadmap
  • GWOS/NWOS Comparisons with ADM Aeolus
  • Instrument Development Laboratory (IDL) Study for a NexGen NPOESS Wind Observing Sounder (NWOS)
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Next Steps/Recommendations
background

NexGen

Background
  • ESA planning to launch first DWL in 2009:

Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM)

- Only has a single perspective view of the target sample volume

- Only measures line-of-sight (LOS) winds

  • A joint NASA/NOAA/DoD global wind mission offers the best

opportunity for the U.S. to demonstrate a wind lidar in space

in the coming decade

- Measures profiles of the horizontal vector wind for the first time

  • NASA and NOAA briefings given to:
    • USAF (March 20, 2007); letter sent from AF Director of Weather

on August 1, 2007 to NASA HQ stating:

- Of the 15 missions recommended by the NRC, global tropospheric

wind measurements was most important for the USAF mission

- Willingness to endorse Space Experiments Review Board support via

the DoD Space Test Program

- USAF Space Command (May 8, 2007)

- Army (May 10, 2007)

- NOAA Observing Systems Council (NOSC – June 8, 2007; June 18, 2008)

- Navy (June 11, 2007); supporting letter sent on August 8, 2007

- Joint Planning and Development Office and FAA (June 18, 2007)

- FAA (May 16, 2008)

- NOAA Research Council (May 19, 2008)

background cont

NexGen

Background (Cont.)
  • The National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey report

recommended a global wind mission

The NRC Weather Panel determined that

a hybrid Doppler Wind Lidar (DWL) in low Earth orbit

could make a transformational impact on

global tropospheric wind analyses.

  • “Wind profiles at all levels” is listed as the #1 priority in the strategic

plan for United States Integrated Earth Observing System (USIEOS).

  • Cost benefit studies have identified economic benefits >$800M/year

with the measurement of global wind profiles from space1,2

1 Cordes, J. (1995), “ Economic Benefits and Costs of Developing and Deploying a Space-Based Wind Lidar,

Dept of Economics, George Washington University, D-9502.

2 Miller, K. (2007), “Societal Benefits of Winds Mission,” Lidar Working Group,

http://space.hsv.usra.edu/LWG/Index.html

why measure global winds from space

NexGen

Why Measure Global Windsfrom Space ?
  • The Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) community

unanimously identifies global wind profiles as the

most important missing observations.

  • Independent modeling studies at NCEP, ESRL,

AOML, NASA and ECMWF have consistently shown

tropospheric wind profiles to be the single most

beneficial measurement now absent from the

Global Observing System.

why wind lidar societal benefits at a glance

NexGen

CivilianMilitary

Hurricane Track Forecast Ground, Air & Sea Operations

Flight Planning Satellite Launches

Air Quality Forecast Weapons Delivery

Homeland Security Dispersion Forecasts for

Energy Demands & Nuclear, Biological,

Risk Assessment & Chemical Release

Agriculture Aerial Refueling

Transportation

Recreation

Why Wind Lidar?Societal Benefits at a Glance…

ImprovedOperational Weather Forecasts

  • Estimated potential benefits greater than $800M per year*
  • Including military aviation fuel savings greater than $100 M/year**

*K. Miller, “Societal Benefits of Winds Mission,” Lidar Working Group Meeting,

February 8, 2007, Miami FL, http://space.hsv.usra.edu/LWG/Index.html

** AF aviation fuel usage estimate provided by Col. M. Babcock

noaa programs requiring atmospheric winds

NexGen

NOAA ProgramsRequiring Atmospheric Winds*

* Data provided by TPIO / CORL Team

nexgen hybrid doppler wind lidar nwos npoess wind observing system for vertical wind profiles

NexGen

NexGen

NWOS

(2026)

GWOS

(2016)

Operational 3-D

global wind measurements

ADM Aeolus

(2010)

Demo 3-D

global wind measurements

GWOS

TODWL

(2002 - 2008)

Single LOS

global wind measurements

DWL Airborne Campaigns, ADM Simulations, etc.

NWOS

TODWL: Twin Otter Doppler Wind Lidar [CIRPAS NPS/NPOESS IPO]

ESA ADM: European Space Agency-Advanced Dynamics Mission (Aeolus) [ESA]

GWOS: Global Winds Observing System [NASA/NOAA/DoD]

NexGen: NPOESS [2nd] Generation System [PEO/NPOESS]

NexGen Hybrid Doppler Wind Lidar - NWOSNPOESS Wind Observing System For Vertical Wind Profiles

2007 NAS Decadal SurveyRecommendations for Tropospheric Winds

  • 3D Tropospheric Winds mission called “transformational”
  • and ranked #1 by Weather panel.
  • 3D Winds also prioritized by Water Cycle panel.
  • “The Panel strongly recommends an aggressive program
  • early on to address the high-risk components of the
  • instrument package, and then design, build, aircraft-test,
  • and ultimately conduct space-based flights of a prototype
  • Hybrid Doppler Wind Lidar (HDWL).”
  • “The Panel recommends a phased development of the
  • HDWL mission with the following approach:
    • Stage 1:Design, develop and demonstrate a prototype HDWL system capable of global wind measurements to meet demonstration requirements that are somewhat reduced from operational threshold requirements. All of the critical laser, receiver, detector, and control technologies will be tested in the demonstration HDWL mission. Space demonstration of a prototype HDWL in LEO to take place as early as 2016.
    • Stage II:Launch of a HDWL system that would meet fully-operational threshold tropospheric wind measurement requirements. It is expected that a fully operational HDWL system could be launched as early as 2022.”
slide10

NexGen

Instrument Design Laboratory [IDL] Studyfor a NexGen NPOESS Wind Observing Sounder (NWOS):An Operational follow-on to the Global Wind Observing Sounder (GWOS)Advanced Mission ConceptSponsored byMr. Dan Stockton, Program Executive OfficerProgram Executive Office for Environmental Satellites

integrated design laboratory capabilities and services
Integrated Design Laboratory—Capabilities and Services

Capabilities:

  • Instrument families ranging from telescopes, cameras, geo–chemistry, lidars, spectrometers, coronographs, etc.
  • Instrument spectrum support from microwave through gamma ray
  • LEO, GEO, libration, retrograde, drift away, lunar, deep space, balloon, sounding rockets and UAV instrument design environments
  • Non-distributed and/or distributed instrument systems
  • Services:
    • End-to-end instrument architecture concept development
    • Existing instrument/concept architecture evaluations
    • Trade studies and evaluation
    • Technology, risk, and independent technical assessments
    • Requirement refinement and verification
    • Mass/power budget allocation
    • Cost estimation

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center—Integrated Design Center

gwos idl instrument

Star Tracker

GPS

Nadir

Telescope Modules (4)

GWOS IDL Instrument

Hybrid DWL Technology Solution

  • The coherent subsystem provides very accurate (<1.5m/s) observations when sufficient aerosols (and clouds) exist.
  • The direct detection (molecular) subsystem provides observations meeting the threshold requirements above 2km, clouds permitting.
  • When both sample the same volume, the most accurate observation is chosen for assimilation.
  • The combination of direct and coherent detection yields higher data utility than either system alone.

GWOS Payload Data

GWOS in Delta 2320-10 Fairing

Dimensions (mm)

  • Orbit: 400 km, circ, sun-sync, 6am – 6pm
  • Selectively Redundant Design
  • +/- 16 arcsec pointing knowledge (post-processed)
  • X-band data downlink (150 Mbps); S-band TT&C
  • Total Daily Data Volume 517 Gbits
hybrid dwl technology maturity roadmap

NexGen

Hybrid DWLTechnology MaturityRoadmap

Past Funding

Laser Risk Reduction Program

IIP-2004 Projects

ROSES-2007 Projects

2-Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar

High Energy Technology 1997

Diode Pump Technology 1993

Inj. Seeding Technology 1996

Conductive Cooling Techn. 1999

Compact Packaging 2005

Packaged Lidar Ground Demo. 2007

2 micron laser 1988

TRL 6 to TRL 7

TRL 5

TRL 7 to TRL 9

2008 - 2012

2011 - 2013

2026

Autonomous Oper. Technol. Coh.

Space Qualified

Lifetime Validation

Pre-Launch Validation

Operational

NexGen

NPOESS

2014 - 2016

GWOS

Autonomous Aircraft Oper WB-57

Aircraft Operation DC-8

Autonomous Oper. Technol.

2008 (Direct)

Space Qualif.

Pre-Launch Validation

Lifetime Validation

Compact Laser Packaging 2007

Compact Molecular Doppler Receiver 2007

Conductive Cooling Techn.

High Energy Laser Technology

Diode Pump Technology

Inj. Seeding Technology

1 micron laser

0.355-Micron Direct Doppler Lidar

slide15

NexGen

NWOS IDL Study Summary

Study Objectives

  • Study the feasibility of modifying the

original IDL design for GWOS

at 400 km altitude to work at

an 824km altitude

on an NPOESS platform

  • Consider 3 instrument configurations

in a trade space that trades

telescope aperture, laser duty cycle,

pulse power/repetition rate

  • Examine impact of new technologies,

estimate improvements in laser

performance, identify technology

tall poles.

  • Minimize power, volume, and mass,

as much as possible (in that order)

  • Consider redundancy for a multi-year

lifetime

Key Study Assumptions

  • 824 km, sun-synchronous, dawn-dusk, 1730 ascending node local time, 98.7 deg. Inclination orbit.
  • 5 yr life, 85% reliability goal
  • 2/1 backup lasers direct/coherent
  • 1/0 backup laser electronics direct/coherent
  • 1 backup receiver for each

(direct & coherent)

  • Both coherent and direct lidars either 100% duty cycle (Configurations 1 & 3) or

50% duty cycle (Configuration 2)

  • Used 10-year beyond 2008 projections for laser efficiencies:

x 2 (direct), x 2.25 (coherent)

  • Either 4 fixed telescopes

(Configurations 1 & 2) or

1 holographic element (Configuration 3)

Key Findings

  • The NWOS IDL designs which follow have shown that the Hybrid Doppler Wind Lidar can be operated at a reasonable electrical power and with reasonable reliability for the 5-year mission on board the NPOESS second generation satellite, NexGen.
  • There are no tall poles in any of the technical developments needed in the future to develop an NWOS.
  • Because the proof-of-concept GWOS flight is in advance of the NWOS, there should be good opportunity to verify the assumed requirements.
slide16

NWOS Wind Measurement Concept

Lidar Backscatter

From Aerosols & Molecules

  • DOPPLER RECEIVER:
  • Multiple Choices
  • drive science/technology trades
  • Coherent ‘heterodyne’
  • (e.g. SPARCLE-NASA/LaRC)
  • Direct detection “Double Edge”
  • (e.g. Zephyr-NASA/GSFC)
  • Direct detection
  • “Fringe Imaging”
  • (e.g. Michigan Aerospace)

Backscattered Spectrum

Molecular (l-4)

Frequency

Preliminary Instrument Design ResultsNexGen Hybrid Doppler Wind Lidar - NWOSNPOESS Wind Observing System For Vertical Wind Profiles

I n t e g r a t e d D e s i g n C a p a b i l i t y / I n s t r u m e n t D e s i g n L a b o r a t o r y

  • Design Study Objectives
  • Study the feasibility of modifying the original ISAL design for GWOS
  • at 400 km to work at an 824km altitude on an NPOESS platform
  • Consider 3 instrument configurations in a trade space that tweaks
  • telescope aperture, direct laser duty cycle, and direct laser
  • pulse power/rep rate
    • Create multiple mechanical, thermal, and optical models
    • Each discipline engineer consider the impacts of all 3 configurations
    • to their subsystems
  • Minimize power, volume, and mass,
  • as much as possible (in that order)
  • Consider redundancy for a 5 year lifetime
  • Requirements
  • Spacecraft accommodations for NWOS:
  • (IDL Study Starting Assumptions)
    • Mass - 650 kg
    • Power - 1000 W
    • Dimensions in cm (X, Y, Z) - (170, 170, 170)
    • Data Rates - 10 Mbps
    • On-orbit life - 5 years
    • NWOS Location – Nadir deck
  • Orbital Altitude: 824km
  • Ascending Node: 1730 local
  • (Sun-synchronous dawn-dusk orbit)
  • Orbital inclination: ~98.7o
  • Orbital period: ~101minutes, 14 orbits/day
  • These requirements held for all configurations under consideration.

NPOESS NexGen

DOP

Aerosol (l-2)

slide17

Launch Concept for the Atlas 5 - 4 m Diameter FairingNPOESS 1730 LAN Spacecraft

4.5 m

5.7 m

Configuration 3

(ShADOE)

Configuration 1 and 2

(Inverted GWOS)

3.75 m dia.

NWOS HDWL Instrument Configurations

= Space Considered for NWOS

Preliminary Instrument Design ResultsNexGen Hybrid Doppler Wind Lidar - NWOSNPOESS Wind Observing System For Vertical Wind Profiles

I n t e g r a t e d D e s i g n C a p a b i l i t y / I n s t r u m e n t D e s i g n L a b o r a t o r y

NPOESS LAN 1730 S/C Sensor Configuration

NWOS HDWL Instrument Trade Summary

No contingency added (+30%)

slide18

NWOS HDWL Instrument Configurations

Configuration 3

(ShADOE)

Configuration 1 and 2

(Inverted GWOS)

Preliminary Instrument Design ResultsNexGen Hybrid Doppler Wind Lidar - NWOSNPOESS Wind Observing System For Vertical Wind Profiles

I n t e g r a t e d D e s i g n C a p a b i l i t y / I n s t r u m e n t D e s i g n L a b o r a t o r y

Launch Concept for the Atlas 5 - 4 m Diameter FairingNPOESS 1730 LAN Spacecraft

4.5 m

5.7 m

3.75 m dia.

NWOS HDWL Instrument Trade Summary

NWOS HDWL Instrument Parameters

No contingency added (+30%)

slide19

NexGen

NWOS IDL Study Conclusions

  • The NWOS IDL design study has shown that the Hybrid Doppler Wind Lidar can be operated at a reasonable electrical power and with reasonable reliability for the 5-year mission on board the NPOESS second generation satellite.
  • There are no tall poles that depend on unforeseen technical developments in the future.
  • Because the proof-of-concept GWOS flight is in advance of the NWOS, there should be good opportunity to verify the assumed requirements.

Return

slide20

NexGen

Next Steps/Recommendations

  • NPOESS evaluation of ADM data
    • Participate on ESA’s ADM Aeolus Team [Launch 2009]

to help establish good data/products and to enable

Aeolus data gathering/usage for NWOS studies

    • Perform study investigating the utility / impact of NWOS

data for NexGen using Aeolus data as proxy data and the

NWOS projected capabilities from the previous ADM

potential impact studies

  • NWOS concept development
    • Estimate NWOS Instrument Cost

- use NWOS detailed Parts List developed from IDL NWOS Study

    • Perform mission conceptual design study

- NWOS Study User Team & GSFC MDL (Mission Design Laboratory)

20

slide21

NexGen

Supporting Material

which upper air observations do we need

NexGen

Which Upper Air ObservationsDo We Need ?
  • Numerical weather prediction requires independent

observations of the mass (temperature) and

wind fields

  • The global three-dimensional mass field is well

observed from space

  • No existing space-based observing system provides

vertically resolved wind information => horizontal

coverage of wind profiles is sparse

current mass wind data coverage

NexGen

Current Mass & Wind Data Coverage

Upper Air

Mass Observations

Upper Air

Wind Observations

slide25

NexGen

Forecast ImpactUsing Actual Aircraft Lidar Windsin ECMWF Global Model(Weissmann and Cardinali, 2007)
  • DWL measurements reduced the 72-hour forecast error by ~3.5%
  • This amount is ~10% of that realized at the oper. NWP centers worldwide in the past 10

years from all the improvements in modelling, observing systems, and computing power

  • Total information content of the lidar winds was 3 times higher than for dropsondes

Green denotes positive impact

Mean (29 cases) 96 h 500 hPa height forecast error difference (Lidar Exper minus Control Exper) for 15 - 28 November 2003 with actual airborne DWL data. The green shading means a reduction in the error with the Lidar data compared to the Control. The forecast impact test was performed with the ECMWF global model.

slide26

Airborne Doppler Wind LidarsIn T-PARC/TCS-08 Experimentin Western North Pacific Ocean (2008) to investigate tropical cyclone formation, intensification, structure change and satellite validation

ONR-funded P3DWL (1.6 um coherent)

PI is Emmitt (SWA)

Will co-fly with NCAR’s ELDORA and dropsondes

Wind profiles with 50 m vertical and 1 km horizontal resolution

Multi-national funded 2 um DWL

on DLR Falcon

PI is Weissmann (DLR)

Will fly with dropsondes

NexGen

u,v,w,TAS, T,P,q

Dropsondes

u, v ,P, T, q

u,v

Lidar horizontal

wind speed

W\'

Data will be used to investigate impact of improved wind data on numerical forecasts

T-PARC: THORPEX Pacific Asian Regional Campaign

TCS-08: Tropical Cyclone Study 2008

slide27

NexGen

Simulated Impact

of Space-based Wind Lidar Observations

on a Hurricane Track Forecast

(R. Atlas et al.)

  • Hurricanes Tracks
    • Green: Actual track
    • Red: Forecast beginning 63 h before landfall with current data
    • Blue: Improved forecast for same time period with simulated DWL data
    • Note: A significant positive impact was obtained for both land falling hurricanes in the 1999 data; the average impact for 43 oceanic tropical cyclone verifications was also significantly positive
slide28

NexGen

4

Lidar Winds

Will Improve Hurricane Forecasts

  • Reduce preventable property damage ~ $212 M/year 2,3
  • Reduce over-warnings ~ $74 M/year 2,3
    • 17% less landfall warning error for average of 2 storms/year 1
    • Typically warn ~ 350 miles of coast, over-warn 220 miles
    • Estimate 17% reduction in over-warning with lidar winds, 37 miles
    • @ $1M / mile precautionary costs saves $37M/storm, $74M/year

1 Storm climatology and simulations for global 3D winds in NWP

2 Cordes, J. J., “Economic Benefits and Costs of Developing and Deploying A Space-Based Wind Lidar,” GWU, NOAA Contract 43AANW400233, March 1995

3 K. Miller, “Societal Benefits of Lidar Winds”, Lidar Working Group,” February 8, 2007

4 www.ncdc.noaa.gov/billionz.html

slide29

NexGen

Summary of Benefits Estimates

($M/year)*a

* K. Miller, “Societal Benefits of Winds Mission,” Lidar Working Group Meeting,

February 8, 2007, Miami FL, http://space.hsv.usra.edu/LWG/Index.html

nwos study objective
NWOS Study Objective
  • Study the feasibility of modifying the original ISAL design for GWOS at 400km to work at an 824km altitude on an NPOESS platform
  • Consider 3 instrument configurations in a trade space that tweaks telescope aperture, direct laser duty cycle, and direct laser pulse power/rep rate
    • Create multiple mechanical, thermal, and optical models
    • Each discipline engineer consider the impacts of all 3 configurations to their subsystems
  • Minimize power, volume, and mass, as much as possible (in that order)
  • Consider redundancy for a 5 year lifetime

Return

slide31

Backscattered Spectrum

DOP

Aerosol (l-2)

Molecular (l-4)

Frequency

Doppler Lidar Measurement Concept

  • DOPPLER RECEIVER - Multiple flavors - Choice drives science/technology trades
  • Coherent ‘heterodyne’ (e.g. SPARCLE/LaRC)
  • Direct detection “Double Edge” (e.g. Zephyr/GSFC)
  • Direct detection “Fringe Imaging” (e.g. Michigan Aerospace)

Return

slide32

Second shot: t+200 ms, 5 ms

1489 m, 207 microrad

37 m, 5.3 microrad

First Aft Shot

t + 190 s

Return light: t+6.6 ms, 62 m, 8.7 microrad

7.4 km/s

90° fore/aft angle

in horiz. plane

45°

FORE

AFT

1253 km

824 km

8 m (86%)

180 ns (27 m) FWHM (76%)

45°

2 lines LOS wind profiles

1 line “horiz” wind profiles

53°

889 km

60/2400 shots = 12 s = 78 km

626 km

1/5 s = 1319 m

1/200 s = 33 m

626 km

NWOS Hybrid Doppler Wind Lidar Measurement Geometry: 824 km

45 deg azimuth Doppler shift

from S/C velocity

±3.6 GHz

±21 GHz

Max nadir angle to

strike earth

62.3 deg

Return

nwos requirements spacecraft and orbit
NWOS Requirements–Spacecraft and Orbit
  • Spacecraft accommodations for NWOS: (starting assumptions)
    • Mass - 650 kg
    • Power - 1000 W
    • Dimensions in cm (X, Y, Z) - (170, 170, 170) cm
    • Data Rates - 10 Mbps
    • On-orbit life - 5 years
    • NWOS Location – Nadir deck
    • Reliability Goal – 85%
  • Orbital Altitude: 824km
  • Ascending Node: 1730 local

(Sun-synchronous dawn-dusk orbit)

  • Orbital inclination: ~98.7o
  • Orbital period: ~101minutes, 14 orbits/day

These requirements hold for all configurations under consideration.

Courtesy D. Evans

From GWOS Systems

Return

nwos system configurations courtesy m clark and d palace
NWOS System Configurations(Courtesy M.Clark and D.Palace)

Configuration 3

(ShADOE)

Configuration 1 and 2

(Inverted GWOS)

Return

slide35

= Space Considered for NWOS

NPOESS LAN 1730 S/C Sensor Configuration

Return

nwos system description 1 of 2
NWOS System Description (1 of 2)

* No contingency added (+30%)

Return

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