Genetics
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 67

Genetics! PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 97 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Genetics!. Objectives. Analyze Meiosis and Mitosis Discuss Gregor Mendel and his contributions to genetics. Essential Question. Who was Gregor Mendel and what did he study?. Back in the Day. Gregor Mendel THE FATHER OF GENETICS 1822-1884 Priest

Download Presentation

Genetics!

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Genetics!


Objectives

  • Analyze Meiosis and Mitosis

  • Discuss Gregor Mendel and his contributions to genetics


Essential Question

  • Who was Gregor Mendel and what did he study?


Back in the Day

  • Gregor Mendel THE FATHER OF GENETICS

  • 1822-1884

  • Priest

  • Study the inheritance traits in pea plants

  • Not recognized until the 20th century


What did Mendel Study?


What did this mean?

  • Selective Breeding

  • Crossbreeding

  • Heritability

    • What traits get passed on?


What about today?

  • Crossbreeding breeds registered

  • Cross bred crops

    • Aprium , Pluot, Grapple

  • Cross Bred Animals

    • Black Baldie, Labordoodle

  • Biotechnology

    • Fish in Strawberries to prevent freezer burn

    • Sub- arctic fish genes pumped into strawberries


Let’s Break it Down

  • Where is the information coming from?

  • Where is it stored?

  • What does it look like?

  • What information is carried?


Where is the info coming from?

  • Parents


Where is it stored?

  • Cells


MitosisActivity:Please draw on a separate sheet of paper Mitosis. On the back we will draw Meiosis


Meiosis


What does it look like?

  • Genotype

  • Phenotype


What information is carried?

  • Chromosomes


Why follow genetics?

  • Pedigree


Activities

  • Video; Intro to Genetics united Streaming


Vocabulary: Please Define

Cross Breeding

Selective Breeding

Mitosis

Meiosis

  • Heritability

  • Gregor Mendel

  • Gene

  • Chromosome

  • Genotype

  • Phenotype

  • Pedigree

  • Gamete


Genetics!The Punnett Square

Middletown High School

Spring 2009


Objectives

  • Analyze heritable traits

  • Calculate heritability using Punnett Square Method


Essential Question

  • What does the Punnett Square represent/ Calculate?


It started with a Pea [plant]


What is a Punnett Square?

  • an n × n square used in genetics to calculate the frequencies of the different genotypes and phenotypes among the offspring of a cross


More than 1 trait


Monohybrid vs. Dihybrid


What does it mean?

  • We can follow traits


How to Punnett Square [Dance]


Reading the Results

RATIOS

1:2:1

AA:Aa:aa

PERCENTAGES


Let’s Practice

  • Worksheet- Punnett Practice


Vocabulary

  • Punnett Square

  • Heritability

  • Monohybrid

  • Dihybrid


What do we look for?

Genetics in Animals


Objectives

  • Identify traits in animal breeding that are desirable based on breed and that are heritable


Essential Question

  • Where do you find information on heritable breed traits?


General Concepts

  • Certain traits are heritable

  • Hybrid vigor

  • Purebred


Dogs

  • What kind of traits would you want in YOUR dog? If you had:

    • Children

    • Small apartment

    • Sheep herd

    • Loved running ?


Dogs

  • Temperament can be bred for!

    • Especially aggression

  • Watch for heritable health risks

    • Eye Problems

      • Irish Setters and Progressive Retinal Atrophy

      • Collie Eye Anomaly

      • Cataracts

      • Entropion (eyelids turn in or out)


Dogs- Heritable Health Contin

  • Hips and Joints

    • Hip dysplasia

      • Malformation/degeneration of the hip joint.

        • Retrievers, Cocker Spaniels, Shetland Sheepdog

    • Osteochondrosis Dessicans (OCD)

      • Bone spur or flake wears away at joint.

        • Present in dogs with OCD

    • Pateller Luxation

      • Elbow/kneecap slides out of place locking leg

        • Occurs more in smaller dogs


Cats- Heritable Health

  • Polydactyly

  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    • Heart muscle thickens

      • Main Coon Cats

  • Progressive Retinal Atrophy

  • Diabetes

    • Burmese

  • Feline Infectious Peritonitis

    • Some cats have a predisposition to the development of FIA


Cattle – Dairy Cattle

  • Milk production

  • Milk Fat Content

  • Efficiency

    • Feed intake to Milk Output

  • Calving ability


Sire Summary in Cow/Calf Op.s

Table 1Example of sire summary data from the 1984 Angus sire summary

University of Missouri: Extension


EPD

  • EPD: Expected Progeny Difference: express the genetic transmitting ability of a sire. The EPD is reported as a plus or minus value in the unit in which the trait is measured.

  • EPDs are calculated from a sire's progeny data. All bulls listed in the sire summary can be directly compared using EPD values. EPDs are an estimate of how a bull's progeny would be expected to perform compared to any other bull listed in the same summary.


ACC

  • ACC: Accuracy is a measure of how much the EPD value might change as additional progeny data become available. Sires with more calves in several different herds will have higher accuracy figures

  • Select bulls to use based upon their EPD values and use the accuracy figure to determine how much to use a bull.


MBV

  • Maternal Breeding Value (MBV) describes how daughters of a bull are expected to produce compared to other cows in a herd. Once a bull's own daughters come into production, the MBV is calculated using the records of his own daughters in addition to those of his sire and paternal and maternal grandsires.

  • Estimates of MBVs come from pedigree analysis, not sire evaluation


DTS

  • Number of Daughters.

  • Why would this information be needed or relevant?


Why perform strict analysis?

  • Both commercial and seedstock producers should find sire summaries useful. A producer using AI can obtain semen from bulls that are superior in the traits of interest.

  • Summaries also can be used to identify herds that excel in genetic merit and vice versa. A breeder who has several superior bulls listed in the report is a more reliable source of bulls than either the breeder who has no bulls listed or the breeder who has poorer than average bulls listed in the summary.


Evaluating EPD’s Exercise Worth 50 points

  • Using the booklet provided at your TABLE please:

    • 1. Read the Packet!

    • 2. Formulate a Vocabulary sheet for ALL vocab words defined (all the abbreviations)

    • 3. Answer the worksheet questions in groups.

    • 4. Write down any questions you have.

    • Due Thursday!!!!!!


Once Finished EPD worksheet

  • Summary Paper

    • 1 paragraph double spaced

      • Define the purpose of a Sire Summary. Who benefits from the sire summaries? What do sire summaries mean for producers? What information is provided on a sire summary?


Genetic Terms to know

Middletown High School

Spring 2009


Objectives

  • Define terms normally used when explaining and discussing genetics


Essential Question

  • Why is using appropriate terminology important in Veterinary Science?


Genetic Vocabulary Review


Co Dominance

  • A condition in which both alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully expressed with neither one being dominant or recessive to the other

  • Example: Roan coloring in cattle


Roan Coloring in Cattle

  • R is Red W is white

  • F1 Generation

    • All Roan

  • F2 Generation

    • 25% Red

    • 50% Roan

    • 25% White

    • 1:2:1 Ratio


Sex Limited Genes

  • Gene that exerts its effects primarily in one sex because of activation by androgens or estrogens

  • Both sexes may have the gene

  • Example hen/rooster feathering


Hen/Rooster Feathering


Sex Determination

  • Mammals

    • Determined at moment of fertilization

    • Female has regular chromosomes plus an XX

    • Male has only 1 sex chromosome Y

  • Birds

    • Females determine the sex of the offspring


Sex Influenced Genes

  • Trait expressed to different extents depending on the sex of the individual.

  • Normally phenotypically recognized

  • Examples

    • Male pattern baldness in humans (comes from your mother)

    • Horns in sheep

    • Spotting in cattle


Sex Linked Characteristics

  • Genes carried on the sex chromosome

  • Example barred feather coloring in chickens


Genetics Activities

  • Chromosomes and Genes

    • Simulation Activity

  • Dihybrid Guinea Pigs

  • Design a Species

  • Hardy-Weinburg?


Genetics in Animals

  • Using the terms learned today.

  • Find examples other than those used in the presentation to help define 1 vocabulary word from today

  • Vocab

    • Sex Linked - Codominance

    • Sex influenced - Sex limited


Gene Behavior

Middletown High School

Spring 2009


Objectives

  • Discuss common gene behavior


Essential Question

  • What types of gene behavior might appear as a phenotypic result


Linkage

  • Tendency for certain traits to appear in groups in the offspring

  • Genes closer together on the chromosome are more likely to stay together


Crossover

  • During meiosis chromosomes line up closely

  • Sometimes the genes jump and cross over forming new chromosomes with different combinations of genes

  • The farther apart two genes are on a chromosome the more likely they are to make a new combination


Mutation

  • New trait appears that did not exist in parents

  • Some are harmful some are beneficial

  • Radiation will cause genes to mutate

  • Example: Polled Herefords

    • Cross between to horned resulted in polled

    • Polled is dominant – one parent must be polled


Mutation Activity: Library 10/14 11:30-12:30pm

  • Research a mutation

  • Write a paragraph summary describing the condition, what causes the condition, and if the condition benefits or harms the animal.

  • Provide sources in APA format have at least 2

  • This will be presented, and collected for grading. COMPLETE SENTENCES please


Mutation

Crossover

Linkage

Sex linked

Sex influenced

Sex limited

Co-Dominance

DTS

EPD

MBV

ACC

Hybrid Vigor

Punnett Square

Heritability

Monohybrid

Dihybrid

Final Vocabulary

Heritability

Gregor Mendel

Gene

Chromosome

Genotype

Phenotype

Pedigree

Gamete

Cross Breeding

Selective Breeding

Mitosis

Meiosis


  • Login