Unit 2 practitioner s work
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Unit 2 Practitioner’s Work. Johnson’s Conflict-Leadership Style Measure (Proverbs). What is your conflict style and is there a difference between our hypothetical groups?. First, take the measure to determine your conflict leadership style.

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Unit 2 practitioner s work

Unit 2 Practitioner’s Work

Johnson’s Conflict-Leadership Style Measure (Proverbs)

Unit 2 Practitioner's Work Chi-square


What is your conflict style and is there a difference between our hypothetical groups

What is your conflict style and is there a difference between our hypothetical groups?

  • First, take the measure to determine your conflict leadership style.

  • http://www.csb.uncw.edu/people/magnusj/MGT%20358%20Lecture%20Slides/confict%20management%20strategies%20questionnaire.doc

  • Source: Johnson, David W. Reaching out, interpersonal effectiveness and self actualization. (2nd ed.) New York: Prentice Hall, 1981.  

Unit 2 Practitioner's Work Chi-square


Conflict strategy

Conflict Strategy

  • The higher the total score for each conflict strategy, the more frequently you tend to use that strategy. 

  • The lower the total score is for each conflict strategy, the less frequently you tend to use that strategy. 

Unit 2 Practitioner's Work Chi-square


Hypothetical study

Hypothetical Study

  • Imagine a study was conducted to determine the leadership styles of communication and leadership majors versus business majors.

  • Research question:  “Are there differences in the conflict-leadership styles of between communication and leadership majors and business majors?" Operational definition for our hypothetical study.  "Conflict-leadership style is the primary style of the individual as measured by theProverb Conflict-Leadership Style Inventory (Johnson, 1981).“

Unit 2 Practitioner's Work Chi-square


An example experimental study

An example experimental study.

  • We could give a pretest, a treatment--say taking a communication and leadership course--and a post-test.

  • We could measure changes caused by the treatment.

Unit 2 Practitioner's Work Chi-square


Chi square

Chi-square

  • We would use a Chi-square because it is nominal data.

  • When using Chi-square, you'll typically want at least 20 people or items per cell for accurate results. 

Unit 2 Practitioner's Work Chi-square


Imagine the hypothetical results looked like this information

Imagine the hypothetical results looked like this information. 

Unit 2 Practitioner's Work Chi-square


Enter the data and calculate

Enter the data and calculate.

  • CALCULATE in an online calculator, SPSS, EXCEL, or other program.

  • Enter the dataand calculate. 

  • Is there a difference between the two groups (Communication & Leadership Majors and Business Majors?

Unit 2 Practitioner's Work Chi-square


Finding an online calculator

Finding An Online Calculator

If a link doesn’t work, find your own. You can search by using your favorite browser and entering “statistics calculator” or “chi-square calculator” or similar key words.

Unit 2 Practitioner's Work Chi-square


Online calculators

Online Calculators

I recommend a university-based calculator like this one, but there are many fine commercial calculators too.

  • http://people.ku.edu/~preacher/chisq/chisq.htm

Unit 2 Practitioner's Work Chi-square


Enter the data in this case a free online chi square calculator was used

Enter the data. In this case, a free online Chi-square calculator was used.

Unit 2 Practitioner's Work Chi-square


When you enter the data and calculate here is the result

When you enter the data and calculate, here is the result: 

Unit 2 Practitioner's Work Chi-square


Chi square table

Chi-square table.

  • "The number of degrees of freedom associated with a contingency table consisting of r rows and c columns is (r-1) (c-1). . . 

  • In order to test the null hypothesis, we compare the test statistic with the critical value Chi-square at the probability level we want to use. Let us use .05.“

Unit 2 Practitioner's Work Chi-square


Using a chi square table

Using a Chi-Square Table

  • Go to a Chi-Square table in any statistics textbook or online, and you can see whether or not there is a significant difference. 

  • In this case, when you check the table, the results are higher than needed for a .05 level of confidence or a .001 level of confidence. 

Unit 2 Practitioner's Work Chi-square


Unit 2 practitioner s work

Unit 2 Practitioner's Work Chi-square


Unit 2 practitioner s work

  • If you look at the degrees of freedom at the left (select 4 for this example remember) and go across to .05 level, the Chi-square needs to be higher than 9.488. 

  • The data yield a Chi-square much higher than needed to suggest there is a significant difference between the two majors.

Unit 2 Practitioner's Work Chi-square


Interpretation

Interpretation

  • We can be confident that these results did not happen by chance. 

  • The results cannot "prove" anything, but "suggest" or "support." 

  • We interpret that in this hypothetical study, communication and leadership majors are more likely to use a collaboration style and business majors are more likely to use a competitive style. 

Unit 2 Practitioner's Work Chi-square


Unit 2 practitioner s work

  • "The data suggest a difference between the conflict-leadership styles of communication and leadership majors and business majors."

  • Remember, this study is fictional, not real.

Unit 2 Practitioner's Work Chi-square


Null hypothesis

Null hypothesis.

  • If the hypothesis is H0:  There is no significant difference between the conflict-leadership style of communication and leadership majors and business majors, we reject the null hypothesis. 

  • Explanation about null hypothesis: http://www.stats.gla.ac.uk/steps/glossary/hypothesis_testing.html

Unit 2 Practitioner's Work Chi-square


Hypothesis

Hypothesis:

  • If our hypothesis is:  "There is a significant difference between the conflict-leadership style of communication and leadership majors and business majors,” then the data supports the hypothesis. 

Unit 2 Practitioner's Work Chi-square


Unit 2 practitioner s work

End

You’re making progress up the hill!

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