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Agricultural Science Teachers. Presentation Oilseed Rape Maize Geraldine Hynes B.Agr.Sc. H.D.B.S. Teagasc Drystock Advisor Claremorris Co Mayo

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Agricultural science teachers
Agricultural Science Teachers

Presentation Oilseed Rape

Maize

Geraldine Hynes B.Agr.Sc. H.D.B.S.

Teagasc Drystock Advisor

Claremorris Co Mayo

(094 ) 9371360 Dec 09


Oil seed rape
Oil Seed Rape

Source World wide source of Vegetable oil

IRL `90s 6000ha – UK for processing

CAP economically unattractive

`05 SFP and energy premium

Energy Crop Scheme €45 /ha max

National top up €80/ha max 37.5 ha

+ demand from local bio fuel processors

grown on contract Quinns Baltinglass, Glanbia

Ireland 4500 ha


Rotation and soils
Rotation and Soils

  • Free draining Med heavy Soil

  • Poor yield light /waterlogged soils

  • Ph 6.3

  • OSR Brassica crop

  • Previously Brassicas Club root leave 4 yrs

  • Previously Sugar Beet Beet Cyst eelworm leave 2 yrs

  • Good as break crop - Deep roots improve soil structure


Establishment
Establishment

  • Winter OSR Mid Aug (North) – Mid Sept (South )

  • 60-80seeds/m2 30-50plants/m2 in spring

  • Allows sufficient light to base ,encourage branching and pod numbers

  • Spring OSR Mid March - April

  • 100-120 seeds/m2

  • Fine firm level seed bed depth 1.5cm

  • Ploughing one pass drilling

  • In dry conditions to avoid compaction

  • Roll - firm seed bed

  • -Moisture retention


Varieties spring osr
Varieties Spring OSR

  • HGCA List UK Home Grown Cereal Authority



Lime and fertiliser
Lime and Fertiliser

  • PH 6.5

  • N 130-150kgsN/ha.

  • P + K Soil index 3 20kgs P 35 kgs K /ha.

  • e.g. 400kg/ha 18 6 12 /ha and top dress post emergence with Nitrogen

  • 50% incorporated pre sowing / Vigorous growth

  • Remainder rosette to early stem stage

  • Sandy soils Sulphur deficiency 20kgs.ha

  • Boron deficiency common especially in drought conditions

  • Apply Bo fertilizer / Solubar spray @5-10kgs./ha.


Weed control
Weed Control

  • Pre sowing

  • Incorporate Treflan (Chickweed/Fat Hen/Speedweel

  • Pre emergence Trifuralin /Butisan

  • (Knotgrass / Mayweeds)

  • Post emergence

  • Kerb Flow grass weeds broadleaf weeds


Disease
Disease

  • Phoma leaf spot (Canker ) 25% reduction in yield

  • Light leaf spot 50%

  • Sclerotina effects petals leaf stem 50%

  • Alternaria pod spot

  • WOSR I to 2 sprays of a fungicide to cover above

  • SOSR usually disease free


Harvesting
Harvesting

  • End July early August 90% seeds are black

  • 1. Desication and direct combing weedy crops

  • Glyophosphate products 14- 21 days pre harvest (2/3 pods are brown ) scutch/perennial weeds controled

  • Diquat products 7-10 days pre harvest (Bottom pods Brown /black : middle reddish brown )

  • 2. Swathing done in exposed locations

  • 6-7weeks after the end flowering( seeds top pods turning green to brown : middle brown : lower pods dark brown )

  • 7-14 days later combine seeds black

  • Suits exposed weed free fields



Maize
Maize

  • Why grow

  • High in energy less meals required

  • Could replace 50% silage

  • In cow increases intake by 10%

  • increases milk fat and protein 3- 5%

  • Cattle increased performance by 10%

  • Easy to ensile

  • Utilises slurry well


Feeding value
Feeding value

  • Protein 9%- 11 % low

  • Grass silage 12-15%

  • Introduce Maize Gradually

  • Feed with long fibre hay /straw if main roughage

  • Minerals low so balance with Maize Balancer

  • Maize silage spoils quicker than grass

  • Don’t ruffle feed face esp. in mild weather

  • Slightly Cheaper /ton dm €91 versus €118 grass silage


Site selection
Site Selection

  • Requires 10° C

  • Ontario Heat units (based on max min temp e.g crop needs 2400 OHU from sowing to harvest

  • Ireland south of line from Dundalk to Fermoy back up to Galway

  • Outside this will grow but yield poor


Site selection cont d
Site Selection (cont`d)

  • Sheltered fields

  • Well drained good soil

  • Southerly Aspect so max. sunlight &temp long growing season

  • Good access to facilitate slurry in Spring harvesting in Autumn

  • Grown continuously without rotational constraints


Variety
Variety

  • Good yield

  • Maturity date

  • Lodging resistance

  • Disease Resistance

  • DAFF Recommended list


Sowing date
Sowing date

  • Requires 10 C

  • Seed sown in cold soils poor emergence and vigour

  • April 20 th complete May 10 th

  • Seed rate 105,000 to110,000/ha

  • 1acre packs Seed dressed soilborne diseases and bird repellent

  • Germination 90%

  • Plant population 100,000 above this

  • DM% is low and delay in maturing


Fertiliser
Fertiliser

  • Cattle /Pig slurry Ploughed in Mar/Apr

  • should supply most of P&K

  • Nitrogen 80 - 225kgs /ha.

  • Phosphorous 10 - 70 kgs

  • Potash 100- 285kgs


Seedbed preparations
Seedbed Preparations

  • Has deep and flat rooted plant system

  • Plough Deep (10 - 13 cm )

  • Generally 2 passes power harrow

  • Firm fine tilth similar to sugar beet

  • Light rolling to ensure good consolation


Sowing
Sowing

  • Precision drill in rows 70 -75 cm apart

  • at a depth of 4cm in heavy soils

  • 6 cm in light soils

  • Too deep will delay emergence

  • Plant at right angles to the prevailing

    wind to facilitate harvesting if lodged

    Plastic photodegradable

    increases temp 3.5 C in May

    3.9 C in June

    1.0 C in July

    Cost €300/ha cost effective increases dm yield

    increases DM content

    increases starch content


Weed pest control
Weed Pest Control

  • Perennial weeds Scutch/ Docks in Autumn with Round up ?? (C `ant plough grassland

    between October 15 and Dec1 0(Green cover 6wks)

  • Pre emergence Cadou Star

  • Post emergence Dow Shield/Titus

  • Annual weeds/Broadleaf weeds

  • Pests not problem

  • Leatherjackets /wireworms after grass Yaltox

  • Frit fly Yellow dead central shoot Dursban


Harvesting1
Harvesting

  • Unlike grass silage DMD does not fall rapidly DMD 68% ( range 60-72)

  • >30 % DM hard passes through animal

  • High DM crops corn cracker used

  • Harder to ensile Clamp consolidation

  • More Aerobic deterioration

  • 27% Grain med to hard dough stage

  • Top of grain starting to dimple

  • Harvest Sept. _ early maturing crops

  • Harvest Oct _ Majority varieties


Harvesting cont d
Harvesting Cont`d

  • Chop length 1- 1.5cm so most grains are ruptured

  • By varying the no blades and speed of feed roller

  • Generally no additive used





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