OSHA Recordkeeping Requirements. Injury and Illness. 1904.1 - Partial Exemption for employers with 10 or fewer employees. All employers must report incidents that result in a fatality or the hospitalization of three or more employees.
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Injury and Illness
All employers must report incidents that result in a fatality or the hospitalization of three or more employees.
If your company had more than 10 employees at any time in the entire company during the last calendar year, you must keep OSHA injury and illness records.
Business establishments classified in agriculture; mining; construction; manufacturing; transportation; communication; electric; gas and sanitary services; or wholesale trade are not eligible for the partial industry classification exemption.
If a company has several business establishments engaged in different classes of business activities, some of the company’s establishments may be required to keep records, while others may be exempt.
Basic Requirement - fatality, injury and illness that:
1. Is work related
2. Is a new case; and
3. Meets one or more of the general recording criteria of 1904.7 or the application to specific cases of 1904.8 through 1904.12.
Needlestick and sharps injury cases, tuberculosis cases, hearing loss cases, medical removal cases, and musculoskeletal disorder cases. See 1904.8 through 1904.12
Either caused or contributed to the resulting condition or significantly aggravated a pre-existing injury or illness.
What is the “work environment”?
The establishment and other locations where one or more employees are working or are present as a condition of their employment.
Are there situations where an injury or illness occurs in the work environment and is not considered work-related?
Yes, in the following situations:
At the time of the injury or illness, the employee was present in the work environment as a member of the general public rather than as an employee.
The injury or illness involves signs or symptoms that surface at work but result solely from a non-work-related event or exposure that occurs outside the work environment.
The injury or illness results solely from voluntary participation in a wellness program or in a medical, fitness, or recreational activity such as blood donation, physical examination, flu shot, exercise class, racquetball, or baseball.
The injury or illness is solely the result of an employee eating, drinking, or preparing food or drink for personal consumption (whether bought on the employer’s premises or brought in).
*Note: If the employee is made ill by ingesting food contaminated by workplace contaminants (such as lead), or gets food poisoning from food supplied by the employer, the case would be considered work-related.
The injury or illness is solely the result of an employee doing personal tasks (unrelated to their employment) at the establishment outside of the employee’s assigned working hours.
The injury or illness is solely the result of personal grooming,self medication for a non-work-related condition, or is intentionally self-inflected
The injury or illness is caused by a motor vehicle accident and occurs on a company parking lot or company access road while the employee is commuting to or from work.
The illness is the common cold or flu (Note: contagious diseases such as tuberculosis, brucellosis, hepatitis A, or plague are considered work-related if the employee is infected at work).
How do I handle a case if it is not obvious whether the precipitating event or exposure occurred in the work environment away from work?
In these situations, you must evaluate the employee’s work duties and environment to decide whether or not one or more events or exposures in the work environment either caused or contributed to the resulting condition or significantly aggravated a pre-existing condition.
How do I know if an event or exposure in the work environment “significantly aggravated” a preexisting injury or illness? Events or exposure results in any of the following:
Loss of consciousness provided that the preexisting injury or illness would likely not have resulted in loss of consciousness but for the occupational event or exposure
One or more days away from work, or days of restricted work, or days of job transfer that otherwise would not have occurred but for the occupational event or exposure
Medical treatment in a case where no medical treatment was needed for the injury or illness before the workplace event or exposure, or a change in medical treatment was necessitated by the workplace event or exposure.
Which injuries and illnesses are considered pre-existing conditions?
An injury or illness is a preexisting condition if it resulted solely from a non-related event or exposurethat occurred outside the work environment.
How do I decide whether an injury or illness is work-related if the employee is on travel status at the time the injury occurs?
If the employee has . . .
checked into a hotel or motel for one or more days.
taken a detour for personal reasons.
How do I decide if a case is work-related when the employee is working at home?
Injuries and illnesses that occur while an employee is working at home, including work in a home office, will be considered work-related if the injury or illness occurs while the employee is performing work for pay or compensation in the home, and the injury or illness is directly related to the performance of work.
Basic requirement. You must consider an injury or illness to be a ‘‘new case’’ if:
(1) The employee has not previously experienced a recorded injury or illness of the same type that affects the same part of the body.
(2) The employee previously experienced a recorded injury or illness of the same type that affected the same part of the body but had recovered completely (all signs and symptoms had disappeared) from the previous injury or illness and an event or exposure in the work environment caused the signs or symptoms to reappear.
Implementation. (1) When an employee experiences the signs or symptoms of a chronic work-related illness, do I need to consider each recurrence of signs or symptoms to be a new case?
No, for occupational illnesses where the signs or symptoms may recur or continue in the absence of an exposure in the workplace, the case must only be recorded once. Examples may include occupational cancer, asbestosis, byssinosis and silicosis.
When an employee experiences the signs or symptoms of an injury or illness as a result of an event or exposure in the workplace, such as an episode of occupational asthma, must I treat the episode as a new case?
Yes, because the episode or recurrence was caused by an event or exposure in the workplace, the incident must be treated as a new case.
May I rely on a physician or other licensed health care professional to determine whether a case is a new case or a recurrence of an old case?
You are not required to seek the advice of a physician or other licensed health care professional.
However, if you do seek such advice, you must follow the physician or other licensed health care professional’s recommendation about whether the case is a new case or a recurrence.
If you receive recommendations from two or more physicians or other licensed health care professionals, you must make a decision as to whichrecommendation is the most authoritative (best documented, best reasoned, or most authoritative), and record the case based upon that recommendation.
Basic requirement. You must consider an injury or illness to meet the general recording criteria, and therefore to be recordable, if it results in any of the following:
days away from work,
restricted work or transfer to another job,
medical treatment beyond first aid, or
loss of consciousness
You must also consider a case to meet the general recording criteria if it involves a significantinjury or illness diagnosed by a physician or other licensed health care professional, even if it does not result in death, days away fromwork,restricted work or job transfer, medicaltreatment beyond first aid, or loss ofconsciousness
Implementation. (1) How do I decide if a case meets one or more of the general recording criteria?
A work-related injury or illness must be recorded if it results in one or more of
Days away from work
Restricted work or transfer to another job
Medical treatment beyond first aid
Loss of consciousness
A significant injury or illness diagnosed by a physician or otherlicensed health care professional
How do I record a work-related injury or illness that results in the employee’s death?
You must record an injury or illness that results in death by entering a check mark on the OSHA 300 Log in the space for cases resulting in death. You must also report any work-related fatality to OSHA within eight (8) hours, as required by § 1904.39.
How do I record a work-related injury or illness that results in days away from work?
When an injury or illness involves one or more days away from work, you must record the injury or illness on the OSHA 300 Log with a check mark in the space for cases involving days away and an entry of the number of calendar days away from work in the number of days column. If the employee is out for an extended period of time, you must enter an estimate of the days that the employee will be away, and update the day count when the actual number of days is known.
Do I count the day on which the injury occurred or the illness began?
No, you begin counting days away on the day after the injury occurred or the illness began.
How do I record an injury or illness when a physician or other licensed health care professional recommends that the worker stay at home but the employee comes to work anyway?
You must record these injuries and illnesses on the OSHA 300 Log.
The days away must be recorded whether the injured or illemployee follows the physician or licensed health care professional’s recommendation or not.
How do I handle a case when a physician or other licensed health care professional recommends that the worker return to work but the employee stays at home anyway?
In this situation, you must end the count of days away from work on the date the physician or otherlicensed health care professional recommends thatthe employee return to work.
How do I count weekends, holidays, or other days the employee would not have worked anyway?
You must count the number of calendar days theemployee was unable to work as a result of the injury orillness, regardless of whether or not the employee was scheduled to work on those day(s).
How do I record a case in which a worker is injured or becomes ill on a Friday and reports to work on a Monday, and was not scheduled to work on the weekend?
You need to record this case only if you receive information from a physician or other licensed health care professional indicating that the employee should not have worked, or should have performed only restricted work, during the weekend.
How do I record a case in which a worker is injured or becomes ill on the day before scheduled time off such as a holiday, a planned vacation, or a temporary plant closing?
You need to record a case of this type only if you receive information from a physician or other licensed health care professional indicating that the employee should not have worked, or should have performed only restricted work, during the scheduled time off.
Is there a limit to the number of days away from work I must count?
Yes, you may ‘‘cap’’ the total days away at 180 calendar days.
May I stop counting days if an employee who is away from work because of an injury or illness retires or leaves my company?
Yes, if the employee leaves your company for some reason unrelated to the injury or illness, such as retirement, a plant closing, or to take another job, you may stop counting days away from work or days of restriction/job transfer.
If a case occurs in one year but results in days away during the next calendar year, do I record the case in both years?
No, you only record the injury or illness once. You must enter the number of calendar days away forthe injury or illness on the OSHA 300 Log for the year in which the injury or illness occurred.
How do I record a work-related injury or illness that results in restricted work or job transfer?
When an injury or illness involves restricted work or job transfer but does not involve death or days away from work, you must record the injury or illness on the OSHA 300 Log by placing a check mark in the space for job transfer or restriction and an entry of the number of restricted or transferred days in the restricted workdays column.
How do I decide if the injury or illness resulted in restricted work?
Restricted work occurs when, as the result of a work-related injury or illness:
(A) You keep the employee from performing one or more of the routine functions of his or her job, or from working the full workday that he or she would otherwise have been scheduled towork; or
(B) A physician or other licensed health care professional recommends that the employee not perform one or more of the routine functions of his or her job, or not work the full workday that he or she would otherwise have been scheduled to work.
What is meant by ‘‘routine functions’’?
For recordkeeping purposes, an employee’s routine functions are those work activities the employee regularly performs at least once per week.
Do I have to record restricted work or job transfer if it applies only to the day on which the injury occurred or the illness began?
No, you do not have to record restricted work or job transfers if you, or the physician or other licensed health care professional, impose the restriction or transfer only for the day on which the injury occurred or the illness began.
If you or a physician or other licensed health care professional recommends a work restriction, is the injury or illness automatically recordable as a ‘‘restricted work’’ case?
No.The restriction must as defined by OSHA
How do I record a case where the worker works only for a partial work shift because of a work-related injury or illness?
A partial day of work is recorded as a day of job transfer or restriction for recordkeeping purposes, except for the day on which the injury occurred or the illness began.
How do I handle vague restrictions from a physician or other licensed health care professional, such as that the employee engage only in ‘‘light duty’’ or ‘‘take it easy for a week’’?
If you are not clear about the physician or other licensed healthcare professional’s recommendation, you may ask that personwhether the employee can do all of his or her routine job functions and work all of his or her normally assigned work shift. If the answer to both of these questions is ‘‘Yes,’’ then the case does not involve a work restriction and does not have to be recorded as such.
What do I do if a physician or other licensed health care professional recommends a job restriction meeting OSHA’s definition, but the employee does all of his or her routine job functions anyway?
You must record the injury or illness on the OSHA300 Log as a restricted work case.
How do I record an injury or illness that involves medical treatment beyond first aid?
You enter a check mark in the box for cases where the employee received medical treatment but remained at work and was not transferred or restricted.
What is the definition of medical treatment?
‘‘Medical treatment’’ means the management and careof a patient to combat disease or disorder.
Medical treatment does not include:
(A) Visits to a physician or other licensed health care professional solely for observation or counseling;
(B) The conduct of diagnostic procedures, such as x-rays and blood tests, including the administration of prescription medications used solely for diagnostic purposes (e.g., eye drops to dilate pupils); or
(C) ‘‘First aid’’ as defined in paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section.
What is ‘‘first aid’’? For the purposes of Part 1904, ‘‘first aid’’ means the following:
(A) Using a non-prescription medication at nonprescription strength (for medications available in both prescription and non-prescription form, a recommendation by a physician or other licensed health care professional to use a non-prescriptionmedication at prescription strength is considered medical treatment for recordkeeping purposes);
(B) Administering tetanus immunizations (other immunizations, such as Hepatitis B vaccine or rabies vaccine, are considered medical treatment);
(C) Cleaning, flushing or soaking wounds on the surface of the skin;
(D) Using wound coverings such as bandages, Band-Aids TM , gauze pads, etc.; or using butterfly bandages or Steri-Strips TM (other wound closing devices such as sutures, staples, etc., are considered medical treatment);
(E) Using hot or cold therapy;
(F) Using any non-rigid means of support, such as elastic bandages, wraps, non-rigid back belts, etc. (devices with rigid stays or other systems designed to immobilize parts of the body are considered medical treatment for recordkeeping purposes);
(G) Using temporary immobilization devices while transporting an accident victim (e.g., splints, slings, neck collars, back boards, etc.).
(H) Drilling of a fingernail or toenail to relieve pressure, or draining fluid from a blister;
(I) Using eye patches;
(J) Removing foreign bodies from the eye using only irrigation or a cotton swab;
(K) Removing splinters or foreign material from areas other than the eye by irrigation, tweezers, cotton swabs or other simple means;
(L) Using finger guards;
(M) Using massages (physical therapy or chiropractic treatment are considered medical treatment for recordkeeping purposes); or
(N) Drinking fluids for relief of heat stress.
Are any other procedures included in first aid?
No, this is a complete list of all treatments considered first aid for Part 1904 purposes.
Does the professional status of the person providing the treatment have any effect on what is considered first aid or medical treatment?
What if a physician or other licensed health care professional recommends medical treatment but the employee does not follow the recommendation?
You must record the case even if the injured or ill employee does not follow the physician or other licensed health care professional’s recommendation.
Is every work-related injury or illness case involving a loss of consciousness recordable?
What is a ‘‘significant’’ diagnosed injury or illness that is recordable under the general criteria even if it does not result in death, days away from work, restricted work or job transfer, medical treatment beyond first aid, or loss of consciousness?
Work-related cases involving cancer, chronicirreversible disease, a fractured or cracked bone, or a punctured eardrum must always be recorded under the general criteria at the time of diagnosis by a physician or other licensed health care professional.
Note to § 1904.7: OSHA believes that most significant injuries and illnesses will result in one of the criteria listed in § 1904.7(a): death, days away from work, restricted work or job transfer, medical treatment beyond first aid, or loss of consciousness.
There are some significant progressive diseases, such as byssinosis, silicosis, and some types of cancer, for which medical treatment or work restrictions may not be recommended at the time of diagnosis but are likely to berecommended as the disease progresses.
Basic requirement. You must record all work-related needlestick injuries and cutsfrom sharp objects that are contaminated withanother person’s blood or other potentially infectious material.
If I record an injury and the employee is later diagnosed with an infectious bloodborne disease, do I need to update the OSHA 300 Log?
Yes, you must update the classification of the case on the OSHA 300 Log if the case results in death, days away from work, restricted work, or job transfer. You must also update the description to identify the infectious disease and change the classification ofthe case from an injury to an illness.
What if one of my employees is splashed or exposed to blood or other potentially infectious material without being cut or scratched? Do I need to record this incident?
You need to record such an incident on the OSHA 300 Log as an illness if:
(i) It results in the diagnosis of a bloodborne illness, such asHIV, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C; or (ii) It meets one ormore of the recording criteria in § 1904.7.
Basic requirement. If an employee is medically removed under the medical surveillance requirements of an OSHAStandard, you must record the case on the OSHA 300 Log.
Do I have to record a case where I voluntarily removed the employee from exposure before the medical removal criteria in an OSHA standard are met?
No, if the case involves voluntary medical removal before the medical removal levels required by an OSHA standard, you do not need to record the case on the OSHA 300 Log.
Basic requirement. If an employee’s hearing test (audiogram) reveals that a StandardThreshold Shift (STS) has occurred, you must record the case on the OSHA 300 Log by checking the ‘‘hearing loss’’ column.
Implementation. What is a Standard Threshold Shift?
A Standard Threshold Shift, or STS, is defined in the occupational noise exposure standard at 29 CFR 1910.95(c)(10)(i) as a change in hearing threshold, relative to the most recent audiogram for that employee, of an average of 10 decibels (dB) or more at 2000, 3000, and 4000 hertz in one or both ears.
How do I determine whether an STS has occurred?
If the employee has never previously experienced a recordable hearing loss, you must compare the employee’s current audiogram with that employee’s baseline audiogram. If the employee has previously experienced a recordable hearing loss, you must compare the employee’s current audiogram with the employee’s revised baseline audiogram the audiogram reflecting the employee’s previous recordable hearing loss case).
May I adjust the audiogram results to reflect the effects of aging on hearing?
Are there any special rules for determining whether a hearing loss case is work-related?
Yes, hearing loss is presumed to be work-related if the employee is exposed to noise in the workplace at an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 dBA or greater, or to a total noise dose of 50 percent, as defined in 29 CFR 1910.95.
Basic requirement. If any of your employees has been occupationally exposed to anyone with a known case of active tuberculosis (TB), and that employee subsequently develops a tuberculosis infection, as evidenced by a positive skin test or diagnosis by a physician or other licensed health care professional, you must record the case on the OSHA 300 Log by checking the ‘‘respiratory condition’’ column.
Basic requirement. If any of your employees experiences a recordable work-related musculoskeletal disorder (MSD), you must record it on the OSHA 300 Log by checking the ‘‘musculoskeletal disorder’’ column.
Implementation. What is a ‘‘musculoskeletal disorder’’ or MSD?
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are disorders of the muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints, cartilage and spinal discs.
MSDs do not include disorders caused by slips, trips, falls, motor vehicle accidents, or other similar accidents.
Examples of MSDs include:
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Carpet layers knee
Examples of MSDs include:
Rotator cuff syndrome
Tarsal tunnel syndrome
Herniated spinal disc
Examples of MSDs include:
De Quervain’s disease
Low back pain
How do I decide which musculoskeletal disorders to record?
An MSD case is recorded using the same process youwould use for any other injury or illness.
(A) Days away from work, see § 1904.7(b)(3).
(B) Restricted work or transfer to another job, or see § 1904.7(b)(4).
(C) Medical treatment beyond first aid. See § 1904.7(b)(5).
If a work-related MSD case involves only subjective symptoms like pain or tingling, do I have to record it as a musculoskeletal disorder?
The symptoms of an MSD are treated the same as symptoms for any other injury or illness. If an employee has pain, tingling, burning, numbness or any other subjective symptom of an MSD, and the symptoms are work-related, and the case is a new case that meets the recording criteria, you must record the case on the OSHA 300 Log as a musculoskeletal disorder.
Basic requirement. You must use OSHA 300, 300–A, and 301 forms, or
equivalent forms, for recordable injuries and illnesses.
Implementation. What do I need to do to complete the OSHA 300 Log?
You must enter information about your business at the top of the OSHA 300 Log, enter a one or two line description for each recordable injury or illness, and summarize this information on the OSHA 300–A at the end of the year.
What do I need to do to complete the OSHA 301 Incident Report?
You must complete an OSHA 301 Incident Report form, or an equivalent form, for each recordable injury or illness entered on the OSHA 300 Log.
How quickly must each injury or illness be recorded?
You must enter each recordable injury or illness on theOSHA 300 Log and 301 Incident Report within seven (7) calendar days of receiving information that a recordable injury or illness has occurred.
May I keep my records on a computer?
Basic requirement. You must keep a separateOSHA 300 Log for each establishment that is expected to be in operation for one yearor longer.
Implementation. Do I need to keep OSHA injury and illness records for short-term establishments (i.e., establishments that willexist for less than a year)?
Yes, however, you do not have to keep a separate OSHA 300 Log for each such establishment. You may keep one OSHA 300 Log that covers all of your short-term establishments. You may also include the short-term establishments’ recordable injuries and illnesses on an OSHA 300 Log that covers short-term establishments for individual company divisions or geographic regions.
May I keep the records for all of my establishments at my headquarters location or at some other central location?
Yes, you may keep the records for an establishment at your headquarters or other central location if you can:
(i) Transmit information about the injuries and illnesses from the establishment to the central location within seven (7) calendar days of receiving information that a recordable injury or illness has occurred.
Basic requirement. You must record on the OSHA 300 Log the recordable injuries and illnesses of all employees on your payroll.
You also must record the recordable injuriesand illnesses that occur to employees whoare not on your payroll if you supervise theseemployees on a day-to-day basis.
Basic requirement. At the end of each calendar year, you must:
(1) Review the OSHA 300 Log to verify that the entries are complete and accurate, and correct any deficiencies identified;
(2) Create an annual summary of injuries and illnesses recorded on the OSHA 300 Log;
(3) Certify the summary; and
(4) Post the annual summary.
How do I post the annual summary?
You must post a copy of the annual summary in each establishment in a conspicuous place or places where notices to employees are customarily posted. You must ensure that the posted annual summary is not altered, defaced or covered by other material.
When do I have to post the annual summary?
You must post the summary no later than February 1 of the year following the year covered by the records and keep the posting in place until April 30.
Basic requirement. You must save the OSHA 300 Log, the privacy case list (if one exists), the annual summary, and the OSHA 301 Incident Report forms for five (5) years following the end of the calendar year that these records cover.
Implementation. Do I have to update the OSHA 300 Log during the five-year storage period?
If an employee or representative asks for access to the OSHA 300 Log, when do I have to provide it?
When an employee, former employee, personal representative, or authorized employee representative asks for copies of your current or stored OSHA 300 Log(s) for an establishment the employee or former employee has worked in, you must give the requester a copy of the relevant OSHA 300 Log(s) by the end of the next businessday.
Basic requirement. Within eight (8) hours after thedeath of any employee from a work-related incident or the in-patient hospitalization of three or more employees as a result of a work-related incident, you must orally report the fatality/multiple hospitalization by telephone or in person to the Area Office of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), U.S. Department of Labor, that is nearest to the site of the incident.
You may also use the OSHA toll-free central telephone number, 1–800–321–OSHA (1–800–321–6742).
Implementation. If the Area Office is closed, may I report the incident by leaving a message on OSHA’s answering machine, faxing the area office, or sending an e-mail?
No, if you can’t talk to a person at the Area Office, you must report the fatality or multiple hospitalization incident using the 800 number.
Do I have to report a fatality caused by a heartattack at work?
Yes, your local OSHA Area Office director will decide whether to investigate the incident, depending on the circumstances of the heart attack.