Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems
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Enabing Adaptive Video Streaming in P2P Systems. Dan Jurca, Jacob Chakareski, Jean-Paul Wagner, and Pascal Frossard, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) Director︰ 童曉儒 教授 Reporter :第三組 陳盈君 M9656008 梁家國 M9656015 何政億 M9656019 蘇軍維 M9656027

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Enabing Adaptive Video Streaming in P2P Systems

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Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

Enabing Adaptive Video Streaming in P2P Systems

Dan Jurca, Jacob Chakareski, Jean-Paul Wagner, and Pascal Frossard,

Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL)

Director

Reporter

M9656008 M9656015

M9656019 M9656027

M9656034 M9656036

IEEE Communications Magazine June 2007


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

OutLine

  • P2P

  • P2P

  • P2P

  • P2P

  • P2P


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

P2Ppeer to peer)p2pBTEmuleEzpeerKazzaeDonkey


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

P2P


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

P2P

  • P2P

  • P2P,

  • P2P,

  • P2P,

  • P2P,,


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

P2P


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

  • Layered Encoding

  • MDC (Multiple Description Coding)


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

P2P

  • (Overlay Network)

  • P2P(pear-to-pear)


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

P2P

  • P2PP2P


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

P2P

  • P2PP2P


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

P2P

  • P2P pearpear


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

P2P

  • P2P pearpear


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

P2P

peerrequestserver

Serverpeer

server


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

P2P

  • As a P2P system does not provide any guaranteed support to streaming services.

  • Two main types :

    • Tree-based overlay

    • Mesh overlay


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

P2P

  • Tree-based overlays organize the peers as a single or multiple tree overlay that connects the source of the media content to the clients.


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

P2P

  • Single tree have fundamentally limited by the following two factors:

    • The high rate of peers joining/leaving the system.

    • The received media quality is limited by the minimum upload bandwidth of the intermediate peers in the branch.


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

P2P

  • Multiple tree architectures address the aforementioned problems.

  • Multiple tree designing and maintaining such systems becomes less trivial.

  • Most importantly, the underlying physical topology must be carefully considered to achieve efficient content dissemination .


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

P2P

  • Mesh overlay architecture is based on self organization of nodes in a directed mesh that is used for media delivery to clients.


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

P2P

The advantages of mesh overlay architecture

  • Low cost and simplicity of structural maintenance .

  • In the resilience of the topology to node failure or

    departure.


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

P2P

  • Streaming applications over such architectures faces important challenges.

    • Packet dissemination and data requests must follow closely the temporal ordering of the content at the source .

    • The limited look-ahead content availability.


H 264 avc

H.264/AVC

ITU-T VCEGISO MPEG(Joint Video TermJVT)ITU-TH.264

(Video Coding LayerVCL)(Network Abstraction LayerNAL)


H 264 avc1

H.264/AVC


H 264 avc2

H.264/AVC

(Network Abstraction LayerNAL)

H.264/AVC


H 264 avc3

H.264/AVC


H 264 avc4

H.264/AVC


H 264 avc5

H.264/AVC

(Video Coding LayerVCL)


H 264 avc6

H.264/AVC


Scalable video coding svc

Scalable Video Coding(SVC)

SNR / temporal / spatial / complexity /

region-of-interest / object-based

combined scalability

graceful degradationbase-layer

interlaced video


Scalable video coding svc1

Scalable Video Coding(SVC)

SVCcumulated video streamsBase Layer (BL)Enhancement Layer 1 (EL1)Enhancement Layer 2(EL2)

Base LayerEnhancement Layer1Enhancement Layer2


Scalable video coding svc2

Scalable Video Coding(SVC)


Scalable video coding svc3

Scalable Video Coding(SVC)

  • SVC


Mpe fec

MPE - FEC

  • MPE : Multi protocol Encapsulation

    • Container for upper layer protocols (IP,LLC/SNAP)

    • Optimized for IP over DVB

    • Associated with FEC in the DVB-H standard

  • FEC : Forward Error Correction

    • Extra layer added to provide error correction

    • Based on a Reed Solomon code RS (255,191)


Mpe fec1

MPE - FEC


Mdc multiple description coding

MDC (Multiple Description Coding)

Multiple Description Coding (MDC) is a coding technique which fragments a single media stream into n independent sub streams (n >= 2)


Mdc multiple description coding1

MDC (Multiple Description Coding)

  • Multiple Description


Multi path streaming in mesh networks

MULTI-PATH STREAMING IN MESH NETWORKS

  • P2P network multi-path,media applications

  • Multiple transmission paths

    • Aggregated network bandwidth

    • Packet loss de-correlation

    • Delay reduction


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

Clientdistinct network pathssource node

Streaming applicationrate allocationsubset of pathspossible sources

  • Available path bandwidth

  • Error rates

  • Media specific parameters


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

  • media quality

    • source selection

    • media rate allocation

  • P2Pchannelpath

    • path re-computation

    • adaptation of the media application


Receiver driven streaming scenarios

RECEIVER-DRIVEN STREAMING SCENARIOS

  • Receiver-driven streamingclinetstreamingSource peer selectionrate allocation

  • P2PClinet

    • candidate source nodes


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

  • RCTP reports

    • construct a timely image of the available network topology

  • application adaptation


Distributed path computation

DISTRIBUTED PATH COMPUTATION

  • Receiver-driven scenarios

    • Requirement for full topology knowledge at a single peer (client)

  • Receivertopology

    • Make an optimal decision

  • peerend to end

    • cumbersome

    • increasingly expensive or inefficient


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

  • Augmenting the streaming scenario with intermediate peer functionality enables the maintenance of up-to-date information about network availability

    • The topology information is no longer relayed toward a single node

    • every intermediate peer makes an individual routing decision


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

  • Distributed path computation

    • Sub-optimal streaming strategies

  • Heterogeneous network

    • peer


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

  • media application

    • flexibility and convergence time of the solution


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

  • Routing of media packets in tree-based overlays

    • Straightforward

    • It is given directly by the structure of the multicast trees


Rate distortion efficient scheduling

RATE-DISTORTION EFFICIENT SCHEDULING

Packets of a media stream do not contribute to the video quality at a receiving peer,

only if:

  • It arrives prior to its delivery deadline;

  • All the previous packets required for its correct decoding were received already.


Rate distortion efficient scheduling1

RATE-DISTORTION EFFICIENT SCHEDULING

  • video-on-demand(VoD)

    The benefit of each individual media packet can be computed and stored before the streaming session actually begins.


Vod video on demand

VODvideo on demand

  • client/server

    • VOD

      • CDNcontent delivery network


P2p vod

P2P VOD

  • P2P approach can potentially solve many serious problems posed in existing VoD systems including

    -The infeasibility of IP Multicast.

    -Network bottleneck at the video server.

    -The high maintenance/deployment of dedicated

    overlay routers.


Media server farm

1.unicast

2. (ServerCluster) streaming (bottolneck)

3.

(load balancing)

-Media Server Farm


Content delivery network

1.

(EdgeServer)

2.IPTV

3.

-Content Delivery Network


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

P2P

  • P2P (OverlayNetwork)


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

P2P


P2p live streaming

P2P Live Streaming

  • P2Plivestreaming

    1.P2P(OverlayNetwork)

    2.

    3.


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems


Packet scheduling and queue management techniques

Packet scheduling and queue management techniques

  • They can be enabled in video distribution trees,

    with the goal of distributively adapting the streaming process to the available network resources.


Coding for distributed delivery

CODING FOR DISTRIBUTED DELIVERY

  • Channel codes can be employed to encode independent segments of a video stream, such as GOP (group of pictures)

  • propose to encode the substreams of a scalable video bitstream using Raptor codes.


Digital fountain codes

Digital Fountain Codes

  • Digital Fountain:

    • Source splits message into smaller data symbols

    • Data symbols are encoded into codewords

    • Potentially infinitely many unique codewords

    • Clients can decode original data with sufficiently many unique codewords

    • Low overhead erasure resistant channel codes


Luby transform lt codes

Luby Transform (LT) Codes

  • Rateless erasure codes

  • LT Codes are universal in the sense that they

    • Are near optimal for every erasure channel

    • Are very efficient as the data length grows.


Erasure codes lt codes

Erasure Codes: LT-Codes

b1

F=

b2

b3

b4

b5

n=5input blocks


Lt codes encoding

LT-Codes: Encoding

E(F)=

c1

  • Pick degreed1 from a pre-specified distribution. (d1=2)

  • Select d1 input blocks uniformly at random. (Pick b1 and b4 )

  • Compute their sum (XOR).

  • Output sum, block IDs

b1

F=

b2

b3

b4

b5


Lt codes encoding1

c1

c2

c3

c4

c5

c6

c7

b1

F=

b2

b3

b4

b5

LT-Codes: Encoding

E(F)=


Lt codes decoding

c1

c1

c1

c1

c1

c1

c1

c1

c1

c1

c2

c2

c2

c2

c2

c2

c2

c2

c2

c2

b2

b2

c3

c3

c3

b5

c3

b5

c3

b5

b5

c3

c3

b5

b5

c3

c3

c3

b2

b2

c4

b5

b5

c4

c4

c4

b5

b5

c4

c4

b5

c4

b5

c4

c4

c4

c5

c5

c5

b5

c5

b5

c5

c5

b5

b5

c5

b5

b5

c5

c5

c5

c6

c6

c6

c6

c6

c6

c6

c6

c6

c6

c7

c7

c7

c7

c7

c7

c7

c7

c7

c7

b1

b1

b1

b1

b1

b1

b1

b1

b1

b1

b2

b2

b2

b2

b2

b2

b2

b2

b2

b2

b3

b3

b3

b3

b3

b3

b3

b3

b3

b3

b4

b4

b4

b4

b4

b4

b4

b4

b4

b4

b5

b5

b5

b5

b5

b5

b5

b5

b5

b5

Key to efficiency: the right degree distribution

LT-Codes: Decoding

Receiver


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

Not covered

Redundant

Checks

Raptor Codes

X

If pre-code is chosen properly, then the LT-distribution can

have constant average degree, leading to linear time encoding.

Raptor Code is specified by the input length , precode and output distribution .


P2p streaming systems characteristics

P2P streaming systems characteristics


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • P2P,,.

  • routing selectionrate allocation ,media quality.

  • Reducing the real-time computational burden by the distributed algorithms can maximize the quality of the received video stream.


References

REFERENCES

  • X. Zhang et al., Coolstreaming/DONet: A Data-Driven Overlay Network for Efficient Live Media Streaming, Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, vol. 3, 1317, Mar. 2005, pp. 210211.

  • V. N. Padmanabhan, H. J. Wang, and P. A. Chou,Resilient Peer-to-Peer Streaming, Proc. IEEE ICNP, Atlanta, GA, 2003.

  • N. Magharei and R. Rejaie, Understanding Mesh-Based Peer-to-Peer Streaming, Proc. ACM NOSSDAV, Newport, RI, 2006.

  • Y. Shen et al., Peer-Driven Video Streaming: Multiple Descriptions Versus Layering, Proc. IEEE ICME, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2005.


Enabing adaptive video streaming in p2p systems

~ The End ~

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