Unit 2 Civil-Rights Heroes. Text A The Freedom Givers Text B The Dream, the Stars and Dr. King. Text A: The Freedom Givers. Part I Pre-reading Task: Abraham, Martin and John Enjoy a piece of music (originally sung by Dion, the chief singer of the Belmonts).
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Text A The Freedom Givers
Text B The Dream, the Stars and
Part I Pre-reading Task: Abraham,
Martin and John
Enjoy a piece of music (originally sung by
Dion, the chief singer of the Belmonts)
1. Can you guess who Abraham, Martin, John and Bobby are?
2. What did these people stand for and their special contributions?
3. Do you know why they all died young and who killed them?
4. Can you guess what the texts in this unit are going to be about?
1.They are Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King, President John F. Kennedy and Bobby Kennedy, John Kennedy’s brother.
2.They stood for the civil-rights leaders, who advocated black civil-rights.
3.They were assassinated young because they fought for the civil-rights, which resulted in making many enemies.
4. The texts in this unit are going to talk about the civil-rights and its givers.
The John Parker House in Ripley, Ohio
1.Why did Barbara Carter speak proudly of her great-great-grandfather?
2. Why did the author travel to Henson’s last home?
3. What was the Underground Railroad? Who forged it?
4. Why did the author want to tell the readers the stories of the heroes of the Underground Railroad?
5. How did John Parker win his freedom?
6. Why did some people try to capture John Parker?
7.Why did Levi Coffin, a white man, help black slaves to freedom?
8. What risks did Coffin run while helping slaves?
9.What difficulties did the slaves have in traveling the Underground Railroad to freedom?
10.Why did many slaves go to Canada?
11.Why did Henson decide to escape?
1.For her great-great-grandfather, Josiah Henson has lived on through the character in American fiction that he helped inspire: Uncle Tom’s Cabin. (L9-10)
2.To know more about the man. (L15-17)
3.(See to the culture note Josiah Henson and other courageous men and women together forged the Underground Railroad. (L20-21)
4.Because the heroes of the Underground Railroad remain too little remembered and their exploits are still kept unknown. (L29-31)
5. He saved enough money to buy his freedom. (L40-41)
6.Because he was a guide who helped people not to be captured by slave hunters. (L42-44)
7. Because he believed in Christianity that they should help those who were hungry and had no clothes to wear, no matter what color they were. (L59-61)
8. He was the risk of getting his store and home burned and even thrown to prison.
9. They had to march a journey of hundreds of miles, during which there were no signs and few maps. (L77-79)
10.Because slavery had been abolished there early in 1833. (L87-88)
11.Because he faced the situation of being separated from his family.
1. Slender: (of people) slim; not very wide but comparatively long or high
Examples: Although her face was quite plain, she had long, slender expressive hands, like a concert pianist.
King crabs have long, slender legs, with a span over 1 meter (3 feet).
Synonym: lean, narrow, slight, thin; fragile, spindly, skinny
Anonym: fat, obese, plump, paunchy, chubby, stout
2. Settlement: a place where people have come to settle
Examples: Manhattan was the site of the original Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam.
The village is a settlement of fifty houses.
Syn: Community, colony, camp, outpost
3.Confident: feeling or showing thrust in oneself or one’s ability (usu. Followed by about/of/that clause)
Examples: Michael was confident that he would be enrolled by Harvard University.
The more familiar you are with this machine, the more confident you will be about using it.
The soccer team is quite confident of being able to win this important game.
4. Give up: abandon an attempt to do sth.
Examples: He’s given up smoking since his illness.
The rescue team had given up all hope of finding the two divers alive.
She was working part-time but she suddenly gave up.
Syn: abandon, give up, quit, desert, discard
Examples: Ironically the widespread use of antibiotics seems to be causing a lot of unexpected health problems.
Ironically it is often the poorer people who give the most.
Ironically, most people came to watch the match on the day it poured with rain.
6.Racial: relating to a person’s race, or to different races of people
Examples: Slavery is closely associated with racial prejudice, the belief that one race is superior to another.
Mandela was elected President in South Africa’s first multi-racial elections, held in 1994.
c.f.: ethnic: of a nation, or tribal group that has a common cultural group.
Example: In China, there exists ethnic problems rather than racial problems.
7. Stand up (for sb./sth.): speak, work, etc. in favour of sb./sth.; support sb./sth.
Examples: You have to be prepared to stand up for the things you believe in.
Don’t be afraid to stand up for yourself.
Always stand for your friends.
8. Historic:famous or important history
Examples: In his book, Churchill recalls that historic first meeting with Roosevelt.
More money is needed for the preservation of historic buildings and monuments.
Examples:The local government hasn’t yet chosen the site for the new skyscraper.
There are many archaeological sites in southern England.
This monument marks the site of the battle.
Rescue workers rushed to the site of the plane crash.
10.Mission: particular task or duty undertaken by an individual or a group
Examples: Some delegates were immediately sent to Israel. Their mission was to negotiate a ceasefire.
The five young people have been on a mission to help the Cambodians.
My mission in life is to help poor people.
Examples: The two countries agreed to forge closer economic ties.
She forged a new career for herself as a singer.
Syn: mould, cast, shape
12. Underground: in or into secrecy or hiding
Examples: His mother took him to Hong Kong where she worked in the underground communist movement.
For about thirty years the African National Congress (ANC) operated as an underground organization.
13.Web: network of fine threads spun by a spider or some other spinning creature; complex series or network
Examples: The little boy was frightened by the spider’s web in the window.
Every day thousands of we surfers flock to this popular site, posting messages.
Other usage: WWW: World Wide Web
14. Liberate: set free
Examples: The new Afghan government is trying to liberate its people from poverty with international help.
Many commercial and public organizations now have their own Web site and publish a “home page”, giving information about the organization.
The troop’s aim is to liberate the country by the end of the year.
Other usage: Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity
15. Authorize: give approval or permission for (sth.); give authority to
Examples: The central government authorized $200 billion to construct new dams to generate cheap hydroelectric power.
The President requested that Congress authorize the presence of US troops in the eastern region.
He was obliged by the arguments of the Minister of Labor to authorize a 23 per cent general wage increase.
Syn: legalize, allow, approve, entitle
16. Exploit: brave or adventurous deed or action
Examples: The general’s wartime exploits were later made into a film and a television series.
My grandfather entertained us with stories of wartime exploits.
17.Be intent on doing sth.: be eager and determined to do sth.
Examples: Working day and night, Janet seems intent on breaking the record in the Guinness Book of Records.
18. Peer: look closely or carefully, esp. as if unable to see well (followed by at/through/into, etc.)
Examples: Stephen had been peering at a computer printout that made no sense at all.
Hawking was a typical grind, underweight and awkward and peering through eyeglasses.
Syn: stare, gaze, glance, gawp, gape
19.Decade: period of ten year
Examples: Many countries were involved in Antarctic exploration during the first decades of the 20th century.
Education budgets have been increased over the last decade in China.
Other usage: deca- 十；mono- 一; dual- 二; tri- 三; quad- 四; penta-五; hexa-六; hept-七; oct-八;
Examples: Some teachers have to find ways of making some money on the side.
In order to earn money to send his children to school, he makes a little money on the side by cleaning windows in his spare time.
21. Capture: capturing or being captured
Examples: Rebel forces captured the city after a week-long battle.
Some of the terrorists who were involved in the 9.11 event
captured by the FBI.
The whole town celebrated when two tanks were captured.
22. Close in (on/around): come near to, esp. in order to attack from several directions; surround
Examples: At one time Peter took part in the capture of three thieves.
The International Whaling Commission permits the capture of only 400 whales annually for scientific purposes.
Vt.Examples: Hitler committed suicide as Soviet forces were closing in on Berlin.
Right after the suicide exploration, Israel troops began to close in on the Palestinian city.
23. Painful: causing pain, hurting
Examples: Symptoms of pneumonia include painful cough, fever, difficulty in breathing, rapid breathing and chest pain.
The old photograph brought back painful memories of his childhood.
Examples:Daoism (Taoism) is one of the three main Chinese religious and philosophical traditions, the others being Confucianism and Buddhism.
The local government wants to increase the amount of religious education in schools.
25. Conviction: firm opinion or belief
Examples: The old woman had a firm conviction that there would be a better life after death.
A non-believer, Tom doesn\'t have any religious convictions.
It is her personal conviction that all corruption should be exposed and dealt with according to relevant laws.
26. Terminal: (building at the) end of a railway line, bus route, etc.; a piece of equipment, usu. Consisting of a keyboard and a screen, which connects the user with a computer system.
Examples:Most large airports have shops, restaurants, and banks in the terminal building, plus special lounges for departing passengers.
All staff have terminals attached to the company’s main computer.
27. Impose: 1) place a (penalty, tax, etc.) officially on sb./sth.
Examples: The government has made a decision to impose a further tax on wines and spirits.
The local government tried to impose fines on the factories, which poured untreated waste into the river.
Examples: I wouldn’t want to impose my religious
conviction on anyone.
It may not be wise for parents to impose their own tastes on their children.
28. As for: with regard to
Examples: As for your request for a free sample, we will send it to you in anout ten days.
Some people have complained, but as for me I’m perfectly satisfied with the working conditions here.
29. Transport: take sth./sb. from one place to another in a vehicle.
Examples:Reducing the costs of transporting natural resources to production sites is one of the sky factors in economic competition.
30. Disguise: Give sb./sth. a false appearance (used in the pattern disguise sb./sth. as)
Examples: She disguised herself as a man so she could fight on the battlefield.
Jack escaped across the border disguised as a Catholic priest.
31. abolish: end the existence of (a law, custom, system, etc.)
Examples: Slavery was not finally abolished in the British Empire until 1833.
Their mission is to abolish the global fur industry permanently by utilizing appropriate legal and non-violent methods.
32. Make the best of: accept an unsatisfactory situation cheerfully and try to manage as well as you can
Examples: I know it’s cold and raining but we’re here now, so let’s just make the best of it.
The living conditions in the village were very poor, but we had to make the best of it.
33. Compel: make (sb.) do sth.; force
Examples: In the past children were frequently compelled to work from an early age.
A large debt burden compelled many developing countries to undertake stabilization and adjustment policies.
Duty compelled the soldiers to volunteer for the mission.
An energy crisis compels fuel conservation
34. At risk: threatened by the possibility of loss, failure, etc.; in danger
Examples: It is reported that some areas in the west are at high risk of desertification.
The buildings in the slum tend to be overcrowded, inadequately served by water and at risk from fire.
At the risk of sounding ungrateful, I must refuse your offer.
35. Starve: (cause a person or an animal to) suffer severely or die from hunger
Example: Some people starved to death during the long drought.
Children in the developed counties are living a happy life, while many African children are starving.
(figu.)She\'s lonely, and starving for companionship.
Examples: In the eyes of his students, Richard is a sensible and reliable teacher.
In the eyes of my parent, I am still a young person although I am already in my thirties.
The practice of religion in America sometimes seems strange in the eyes of the European.
In the eyes of law, he was innocent, though some people wouldn\'t’t think so.
37. Pass for: appear like; be accepted or looked upon as (same as pass as)
Examples: He speaks American English well enough to pass for an American.
My younger sister really wants to go and see the film, but I don’t think she’d pass for 18.
After winning his own freedom from slavery, John Parker helped other slaves to escape north to Canada to get freedom. (Para 6-10)
Supported by a strong religious conviction, the white man Levi Coffin helped black slaves to escape at huge risk.(Para 11-15)
By traveling the Underground Railroad, Josiah Henson reached his destination and become free at last. Para 16-23)
Translate the following passage into English, using the words and phrases given below.
Settlement painful capture underground racial
conviction disguise abolish liberate close in on
Henson’spainfullife as a slave strengthened his determination to struggle for freedom. Shortly after he achieved freedom he became a member of an organization that assisted fugitive slaves. He secretly returned to the United States several times to help others travel the Underground Railroad to freedom. Once some slave catchesclosed in on the escaping slaves and Henson when they were on the run. He disguised them and successfully avoidedcapture. In addition, he built a small settlement in Dresden for escaped slaves, setting up a chapel and a school where they could learn useful ways of making a living. He held to theconviction that slavery would be abolished, all the slaves would be liberated, and the day was bound to come when racial discrimination no longer existed.
Part one :Language Practice
Fill in the gaps with words or phrases listed in the Words and
Phrases to Learn box. Change the form where necessary.
1.Despite his achievements as a _________ money manager and
generous philanthropist (慈善家), Soros’s lifelong dream was to
become a noted philosopher.
2.A nurse needs a lot of patience and goodwill. A bit of charm also
helps, and a lot of _______ and training is needed.
3.The Maya civilization reached its period of greatest development
about 250 A.D. and continued to ________ for hundreds of years.
4.You could argue that her sense of insecurity ________growing
up in an unstable family environment.
5. Against the predictions of the opinion polls, he comfortably won the general election of April 1992, but his government soon faced ________ economic problems.
6. _______ the birthday celebration comes unexpectedly over the radio the announcement of the President of the country declaring a state of emergency for suspected enemy missiles approaching.
7. It was a series of legislative(立法的) acts that finally gave federal agencies power to _______ black rights and thus opened the way to an end to discrimination.
8. His most famous work was painted to commemorate his daughter’s miraculous from paralysis(麻痹症).
9. Most central banks, such as the Federal Reserve System in the USA, control the note issue and _________ the banking system against collapse.
10. The new president decided that police corruption was the first thing to ________ when he came to power.
which _______ against black people and other minorities.
12. Work becomes harder _______. It seems that I have to seek
help from my professors.
13. John is ________ his brother in that he is much more
enthusiastic about his schoolwork.
14. Black people in the area are claiming that they have been _______ repeated racial attacks from police officers.
15. This policy, they say, is _______ confused and at worst non
16. The official report _________ the likely benefits of the scheme,
but avoids considering the costs.
17. Stephen has _______ since the days he could only afford one
meal a day. He is now the owner of ten discount chain stores.
18. The new president would _______ to remember that he
wouldn\'t have made it without the support of the black voters.
19. I really admire those businesswomen who manage to achieve success __________.
20. The state of the country’s economy is very worrying _________, it seems unwise to raise tax on capital investment.
1.Remarkable; 2. Commitment; 3. Flourish;
4. Resulted from; 5. Grave; 6. In the midst of;
7. Enforce; 8. Recovery; 9. Guarantee;
10. Remedy; 11. Discriminate; 12. With each passing day;
13. Unlike; 14. Subjected to; 15. At best;
16. Plays up; 17. Come a long way; 18. Do well;
19. Against all the odds; 20. In this context.
Choose the best answer for each of the following:
1. The writer implies that in America ________.
a. Whites score better that blacks on intelligence tests
b. Blacks outnumber whites in the middle class
c. Schools have raises the ceiling of their classrooms
d. The advances made by blacks are entirely due to one man
2. According to the author, women have gained greater equality due to ____
a. better education
b. the changing nature of work
c. the women’s liberation movement
d. anti-discrimination laws
a. military action overseas b. news reports
c. fear of job losses d. affirmative action
4. It can be inferred that Newt Gingrich _______
a. knows nothing about history
b. thinks the English treated the Irish family
c. agrees with Roger Wilkins
d. is against affirmative action
5. Which of the following can we infer believe in the advice “divide and rule”?
a. the author b. Bob Dole
c. Dr. King d. Roger Wilkins.
6. The author’s position with regard to affirmative action is______
a. entirely negative b. entirely positive
c. mostly negative d. mostly positive
Keys: a d c d b b