The mongol and ming
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The Mongol AND Ming. Mongol Origins. Nomadic horse people N. China Grasslands Raised horses, tended sheep Felt tents: Yerts, Ger Language: Altaic (Rel. To Turkic, Manchurian) Could not marry between tribes and clans. Organization. Families-->Clans-->Tribes-->

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The Mongol AND Ming

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The mongol and ming

The Mongol AND Ming


Mongol origins

Mongol Origins

  • Nomadic horse people

  • N. China Grasslands

  • Raised horses, tended sheep

  • Felt tents: Yerts, Ger

  • Language: Altaic (Rel. To Turkic, Manchurian)

  • Could not marry between tribes and clans


Organization

Organization

  • Families-->Clans-->Tribes-->

  • Tribes gathered during annual migration

  • Chiefs elected. Based on nobility, military ability, wisdom, leadership skills

  • Religion: Shamanism

  • Nature deities, but key God is the Sky God

  • Sacred color: blue


Temujin ghengis khan

Temujin: Ghengis Khan

  • b. 1167, son of tribal chief

  • Father poisoned…fled as youth

  • Returned as adult, avenged father, Eventually chief

    • By age forty had unified all Mongol tribes

    • Battles, alliances, ability to survive

    • Elected as the Great Khan

    • Amazing talents along with sons and grandsons


Positive aspects of the mongol conquests

positive aspects of the Mongol conquests

  • promoted commercial and cultural exchanges global civilizations

  • stable government based on precedents in

  • provided lengthy period of peace


Mongol army tactics

Mongol Army Tactics

  • All males 15-70 served in army

  • Organized into“Myriads” (10,000’s)

  • Units within each of 1000, 100, and 10

  • Unpaid

  • Elaborate signals

  • Soldiers supplied military equipment


Conquest

Conquest

  • Intelligence gathering high priority

  • Foreign experts and advisors

  • Every man carried own supplies; had 2 horses.

  • Loyalty oaths

  • Creation of Yasa, law code


32 million square kilometers

32 million square kilometers


Divisions at genghis khan s death

Divisions at Genghis Khan’s Death

  • Four Khanates

    • Kipchak Khanate (Golden Hoarde)

      • Russia

    • IlKhanate

      • Persia

    • Chagatai Khanate

      • Mongolia

    • Great Khanate

      • China, Outer Mongolia, Border States, to which the others owed allegiance. Later became the Yuan Dynasty


The mongol and ming

China under Mongol Rule

  • Kublai Khan conquered all of China and defeated the Song.

  • Ruled from Cambulac (Beijing)

  • Called himself the Yuan dynasty (1271-1368)

  • Building Projects

  • Religious Toleration

  • Ethnic Ranking

  • Marco Polo spent 17 years in Kublai’s service


Decline and succession

Decline and succession

  • Chinese never really accepted as legitimate

  • Succession wars between heirs and generals

  • High Taxes, Corrupt officials

  • Paper money controversy

  • Yellow River changed course and flooded Grand Canal among other natural disasters

  • Decentralization & Rise of Warlords

  • Last Khan fled to Mongolia in 1368 after the Red Turbans Buddhist led revolts


The mongol and ming

The Ming Restore Chinese Rule

  • After Kublai Khan’s death, the Chinese despised the foreign Mongol rulers.

  • Zhu Yuanzhang defeated the Mongols back to the other side of the great wall & began the Ming (brilliant) Dynasty

  • The Ming ended foreign rule and restored Chinese traditions.

  • Revival of the arts & better methods of printing which led to a flood of books


The mongol and ming

China under Ming Rule

Rebuilding China

  • 1368, peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang, rebel army, overthrew last Mongol emperor

  • Zhu took name Hongwu, “vastly martial,” founded Ming dynasty

  • Ming means “brilliant”; dynasty lasted nearly 300 years, until 1644

  • rulers gained control of Korea, Mongolia, parts of Central, Southeast Asia

  • worked to rebuild China

  • Reduced taxes, improved trade, agriculture, increased stability

The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)

In addition, Hongwu worked to eliminate Mongol influences and revive traditional Chinese values and practices, like Confucian principles.


The mongol and ming

Ming Economy and Society

  • Prosperity

  • Improved methods of irrigation increased farm production

  • Peasants produced huge rice crops in southern river valleys

  • Growth of Crops, Population

  • 1500s, new crops like corn, sweet potatoes from Americas reached China

  • crops further increased farm output

  • Stability, plentiful food led to substantial population growth

  • Growth of Cities, Industries

  • As population grew, so did cities

  • Industries like manufacture of porcelain, silk expanded in response to growing European demand

  • At same time, China remained mainly agricultural society


Social hierarchy and mobility

Social hierarchy and mobility

  • scholar-officials, farmers, artisans, and merchants

  • scholar-official-landlord

    • learning, political power, and economic wealth

  • local elite (gentry) and lineage

  • lack of work ethic

    • literati’s long gown

    • foot-binding for women


China s tributary system

China’s Tributary System

  • Traditional system for managing foreign relations

  • The ``Central Kingdom” worldview

  • Ming dynasty had the most extensive tributary system

    • tributes from East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and even West Asia and Africa


The mongol and ming

  • Values, Traditions

  • To obtain government officials educated in Confucian ideas, Hongwu restored, improved civil service examination system

  • To root out corruption, increased influence of censors, officials who monitored government

  • Expanded Power

  • Hongwu also greatly expanded power as emperor

  • Did away with positions of some high level officials, took over more control of government

  • As result, Ming emperors more powerful than in previous dynasties

  • Eliminated anyone challenging authority; killed thousands of rivals


The mongol and ming

Yonglo

  • In 1398 Hongwu died

  • Following power struggle, son Yonglo became emperor

    • Ruled from 1402 until 1424

    • Moved Ming capital to Beijing, in northeast China

    • Built vast imperial city at center of Beijing

    • City complex became known as Forbidden City because most people forbidden from entering


Zheng he s fleet 1405 1433

Zheng He’s fleet (1405 - 1433)

  • Over 300 ships & 20,000 men

  • trade and commerce

  • Southeast Asia, South Asia, West Asia, and East Africa


The mongol and ming

China and the World

1405 – the voyages by Zheng He - to promote trade & collect tribute.

  • Showed others the power of the Chinese empire.

  • After he died, sea trading was halted b/c Confucian scholars were loyal to tradition & didn’t want foreign influence.

  • China missed its opportunity.


The mongol and ming

Outside Influences

  • European Influence

  • Some Europeans gained influence in China

  • One was Matteo Ricci, Italian Jesuit priest; arrived 1583

  • European Learning

  • Ricci learned Chinese, adopted customs to gain acceptance

  • Introduced European learning in math, science

  • Mongol Threat

  • Ming also faced renewed Mongol threat to north

  • To improve defense, Ming restored China’s Great Wall

  • Great Wall

  • Parts of earlier walls repaired, but most construction new

  • Much of Great Wall seen today built during Ming period


The mongol and ming

Ming Foreign Relations

Beginning of Isolation

  • 1500s, move toward isolation gained full force

  • Ming heavily restricted foreign trade and travel

  • Foreign merchants allowed to trade only at few ports, during certain times

  • Policies impossible to enforce; smugglers carried out brisk trade with foreign merchants

  • Arrival of European traders, Christian missionaries influenced decision to isolate China

  • Europeans introduced new goods and ideas

  • Ming disliked European influences

  • Sought to preserve Chinese traditions

Ming Foreign Relations

The policy to end the voyages was part of a move in Ming China toward isolation from the outside world.


The mongol and ming

The Manchu

Reasons for Decline

  • Ming China weakened; the Manchu, a people to northwest in Manchuria, saw their chance

  • 1644, Manchu swept into Beijing, took capital

  • Last Ming emperor killed himself to avoid capture

  • Manchu formed own dynasty; gave it Chinese name—Qing

  • Late 1500s, Ming Dynasty began to decline

  • Weak rulers took throne, corruption increased under their rule

  • Defense efforts drained treasury; rulers raised taxes

  • 1600s, high taxes, crop failures led to famine, hardship; rebellions broke out

Ming Decline


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