Russian Revolutions
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Russian Revolutions and end of WWI ‏. Tsarist autocracy WWI & home front March Revolution November Revolution Civil War N ote: Julian Calendar vs Gregorian Calendar March Revolution (Feb. 1917) November Revolution (Oct. 1917). Tsarist autocracy. Tsar Nicholas II (1894-1917 reign).

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Russian Revolutions and end of WWI ‏

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Russian Revolutions and end of WWI‏

Tsarist autocracy

WWI & home front

March Revolution

November Revolution

Civil War

Note: Julian Calendar vs Gregorian Calendar

March Revolution (Feb. 1917)

November Revolution (Oct. 1917)


Tsarist autocracy

Tsar Nicholas II (1894-1917 reign)


WWI and March Revolution

Army problems

Supplies & recruitment

Home issues

Tsarina & Rasputin

March Revolution: abdication & liberal government


Provisional Government March-November 1917

Power rivals:

1. Duma(liberals)‏

2. Petrograd Soviet (Bolsheviks)‏

(St. Petersburg 1914)

Russian Marxist split 1903:

Bolsheviks (“majority”)

Mensheviks (“minority”)

Alexander Kerensky


Bolshevik Revolution

Vladimir IlyichUlyanov (Lenin) (1870-1924)‏

Leon Trotsky (Lev Bronstein) (1879-1940)‏

JoesphDzhugashvili (Stalin) (1870-1953)‏

Bolshevism

1903 split: Mensheviks & Bolsheviks

1917: Lenin's opportunity

November 1917: Bolshevik Revolution


Lenin

Lenin in 1895

Lenin in disguise: Finland, 1917

Lenin in 1920


Tsarist police file on Stalin


New York Times: called Bolsheviks:

“political children, without the slightest understanding of the vast forces they are playing with”.


Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918)

Russia out of the war

Russia lost: Finland, Poland, Baltic provinces, Ukraine

Huge war indemnity

Humiliation

“Article I. Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey, for the one part, and Russia, for the other part, declare that the state of war between them has ceased. They are resolved to live henceforth in peace and amity with one another.”


Red Army propaganda: Trotsky as St. George slaying the dragon [top hats associated with capitalists]

White Army propaganda: Trotsky as (Jewish) red devil

Russian Civil War 1918-21


Wilson and moral war

“Make the world safe for democracy”

Fourteen Points


Russia

Revolution (1917)

Peace (1918)‏

USA (1917)‏

Ottoman Empire (1918)

Germany

Offensive Spring 1918 (Western Front)

9 November 1918: Wilhelm

11 November 1918

War Ends


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