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บทที่ 7 ( ต่อ ) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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บทที่ 7 ( ต่อ ). IP Protocol. Data (Transport Layer). Header. ลำดับข้อมูล. IP. IP. แพ็คเกต (Packet). แพ็คเกต (Packet) เป็นลักษณะของข้อมูลที่อยู่ในชั้น Network Layer ลักษณะของ Packet จะมีการ Encapsulation ในส่วน Header เข้าไปกับตัวข้อมูลที่ส่งมาจากชั้น Transport Layer.

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7 ()

IP Protocol


Data (Transport Layer)

Header

IP

IP

(Packet)

  • (Packet) Network Layer

  • Packet Encapsulation Header Transport Layer


Internet Protocal (IP)

  • IP datagram

  • IP (Routing)

  • IP Connectionless


Internet Protocal (IP)

  • IP Address

  • internet IP Address Public address

  • IP Address MAC Address

  • IANA (Internet assigned number authority) IPV4

  • APNIC (Asia pacific network information center)


Header

Data

IP


IP

  • Version : 4 (IPv4) 6 (IPv6)

  • Header Length : option 5 (5*32 bit)

  • Type of Service (TOS) :

  • Length : 16 65,535 byte (64k) MTU 512 byte


IP

  • Identification : identification

  • Flag :

  • Fragment offset :

  • Time to live (TTL) : hop () 1 hop TTL 1 TTL 0 ICMP time out

  • Protocol : TCP ,UDP ICMP


IP

  • Header checksum :

  • Source IP address : IP

  • Destination IP address : IP

  • Data :


IP Address

  • IP Address 4 IP Address 192.168.0.1

  • IP Address 32 4

  • IP Address Class 5 class 2

1. (NetID)

-

-

- Class IP Address

2. (HostID)

-

-


IP Address

  • IPv4 5 A, B, C, D, E

  • 2 (Network ID)


  • 4 . 202.28.38.130 , 10.1.1.222.

  • 0 -255

  • 0 255 202.44.210.0 202.44.210.255


IP Address

  • IP Address 32 4 232 (4,294,967,296)

  • IP

  • 10000000 . 00001011 . 00000011 . 00011111

    128 . 11 . 3 . 31

  • 0 - 255


Class IP Address

  • Class 5 Class A - Class D

  • Class

  • Class A Class B

  • Class C

  • Class D Multicast Address

  • Class E

  • IP Address Class


IP Address : Class A

7 bit 24 bit

  • 0 7 27 128

  • 24 bit Host

  • Address 0.0.0.0 default route

    127.0.0.0 loop back

    9.0.0.0 [ibm.com]

    15.0.0.0 [hp.com]


  • Class A : 0.0.0.0 127.255.255.255

  • 0 Class A

  • (NetID) 7

  • (HostID) 24


  • Class A 0

  • 126 (27 - 2)

  • 24 (224 2) 16,777,214

  • 2 HostID

    • Host IP 0 121.0.0.0

    • Host IP 1 Broadcast Address 121.255.255.255

  • 2 NetID Class A

    • NetID IP 0 1


Class B

IP Address : Class B

14 bit 16 bit

  • 10 14 214- 2 16,382 128.1.0.0 191.254.0.0

  • 16 bit Host 216- 2 0.1 255.254

  • 158.108.0.0 [ku.ac.th]


  • Class B : 128.0.0.0 191.255.255.255

  • 2 1 0 Class B

  • (NetID) 14

  • (HostID) 16


  • Class B 1 0

  • 16,382 (214 - 2)

  • 16 (216 2) 65,534

  • 2 HostID

    • Host IP 0 190.180.0.0

    • Host IP 1 Broadcast Address 190.180.255.255

  • 2 NetID Class B

    • NetID IP 0 1


Class C

IP Address : Class C

21 bit 8 bit

  • 110 21 192.0.1.0 223.255.254.0

  • 8 bit Host 1 254

  • 203.144.152.0 [mcot.or.th]


  • Class C : 192.0.0.0 223.255.255.255

  • 3 1 1 0 Class C

  • (NetID) 21

  • (HostID) 8


  • Class C 1 1 0

  • 2,097,150 (221 - 2)

  • 8 (28 2) 254

  • 2 HostID

    • Host IP 0 192.168.4.0

    • Host IP 1 Broadcast Address 192.168.4.255

  • 2 NetID Class C

    • NetID IP 0 1


  • Class D : 224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255

  • 4 1 1 1 0 Class D

  • Multicast Address


  • Class E : 240.0.0.0 255.255.255.255

  • 4 1 1 1 1 Class E

  • Class



  • A, B C

  • IP Address Class 2

    • IP Host ID 0 158.108.0.0

    • IP Host ID 1 Broadcast 158.108.255.255


Private/Public Internet

  • InterNIC

  • (Private network)


Network Address

  • Network Address (NetID)

  • IP Address : 123.4.67.76

    Network Address : 123.0.0.0

    IP Address : 172.54.13.121

    Network Address : ___________

    IP Address : 201.128.42.53

    Network Address : ___________


Subnet

  • IPv4 ( 32 IPv6)

  • :


(Subnetting)

  • (Subnetting)

  • (Subnetworks)


(Subnetting)

  • Network ID bit Host ID n bit Host ID 3 bit 6 ( 000 111 )

  • Router Gateway


subnetwork

  • subnet 0

  • subnet 1


  • B


  • B


(Subnetting)

IP Address 3

  • (NetID)

    - Class

  • (SubnetID)

    - Physical Subnetwork

  • (HostID)

    - = 2n-2 n subnet

    Packet

    Site -> Sub network -> Host


  • IP Address (Class B)

  • IP Address (Class B)


Subnet Mask

  • Subnet Mask

  • Subnet Mask (Masking) Subnet

  • Subnet Mask

  • Subnet Mask

  • Subnet Mask Default Class IP Address


Subnet Mask

  • Subnet mask 32

  • Subnet mask Network address IP address Network address IP

    • Network address

    • Network address



Class C

  • Host Address 8 2

  • 3 5 Host Address Ip Address 1 8 32


Class C

6 30


Class C

  • Subnet IP Address IP Address Router Host Subnet Mask

    • Net ID Subnet ID 1

    • Subnet Mask Host ID 0


Class C


Class C Subnet

* Subnet 0 1 Subnet 1 Subnet Host Address 8 Subnet 5

** 6 30 14 14 Subnet Class C


Subnet 255 0

  • IP Address 213.23.47.37

    Mask 255.255.255.240

    Subnetwork Address213.23.47.32

    ** 3 AND

    37 =0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1

    240 = 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0

    32 = 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

AND


Subnet Mask

  • Subnet Mask Default

Network Id + subnet 1

Host Id 0



IP


ipconfig -all




CIDR Notation (Classless Inter-Domain Routing)

  • CIDR CI-DER ( - )

  • IP Address Class Class Network Class Class C 24 27 IP

  • IP Address / (Slash) Mask

  • Subnet,

  • : IP Address 201 . 114 . 35 . 38 / 27

    IP Address Subnet Mask : 255.255.255.224

    6 (8 - 2)

    Network Address 201 . 114 . 35 . 32


Private IP Network ( IP )

  • IP Address Class

  • Private IP ISP

    Class A 10 . 0 . 0 . 0 10 . 255 . 255 . 255

    Class B172 . 16 . 0 . 0 172 . 31 . 255 . 255

    Class C 192 . 168 . 0 . 0 192 . 168 . 255 . 255


Private IP Network ( IP )

  • Private IP Router Private IP

  • ( Internet) NAT (Network Address Translation)

  • NAT (Network Address Translation) IP Address IP Address (Registered IP)

  • NAT (Network Address Translation) Router


Source

Destination

Source

Destination

Destination

Destination

Source

Source

Destination

Destination

Destination

Destination

Port

Port

Port

Port

Port

Port

Port

Port

IP

IP

IP

IP

Web Server

203.142.50.55

NAT (Network Address Translation)

Source IP

Source IP

192.168.1.10

NAT Server

Source IP

Source IP


Loopback Address

  • IP Address ( )

  • Loopback Address

    * Loopback Class A 127.0.0.0

    * Loopback Class B 191.255.0.0

    * Loopback Class C 255.255.255.0

    IP Address 127.0.0.2 ,191.255.0.1, 223.255.255.111 Loopback Class


Broadcast Address

  • IP Packet 1 :

  • Broadcast Address 2

    1. Direct Broadcast Address

    - IP Address HostID 1

    - NetID IP

    - Packet Router Host NetID

    - 221.45.71.255 IP 221.45.71.1 - 254


Broadcast Address

2.Limited Broadcast Address

- IP Address 1 (32 )

- Broadcast Address

- Host Packet Host Limited Broadcast Address Destination Address

- Packet Router


Unicast Address

  • 1 : 1

  • Host 1 Host Destination 1 Destination

  • IP Address Class A, B, C

Multicast Address

  • 1 :

  • Host 1 Host Destination

  • IP Address Class D

  • IP Class D IP


Router


IP Routing

  • Routing IP routing

  • :

  • 2

    • :

    • :


Routing Table

  • Routing Table

  • Routing Table

    • Network ID:

    • Subnet Mask: AND

    • Gateway Address:

    • Network Interface: Network card

    • Metric:


Routing Table ()


Routing Table


Open Shortest Path First(OSPF)

  • OSPF Cost


Interior Gateway Routing Protocol

  • IGRP Metric OSPF

    • Bandwidth

    • Delay

    • Load

    • Reliable


Interior Gateway Routing Protocol


Routing Protocol

  • Routing Protocol routing table 2

    • Static IP Routing:

    • Dynamic IP Routing: ,

    • routing table address 0.0.0.0 default gateway


Static IP Routing


Static IP Routing


Dynamic IP Routing


Routing Information Protocol

  • RIP

    • 30


RIP Hop

Routing Protocol


  • Login