Assessment of aerosol direct effects on surface radiation in the northern hemisphere using two-way W...
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Assessment of aerosol direct effects on surface radiation in the northern hemisphere using two-way WRF-CMAQ model. Jia Xing, Jonathan Pleim, Rohit Mathur, David Wong, George Pouliot, Christian Hogrefe, Chuen-Meei Gan, Chao Wei

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Motivation

Assessment of aerosol direct effects on surface radiation in the northern hemisphere using two-way WRF-CMAQ model

Jia Xing, Jonathan Pleim, Rohit Mathur, David Wong, George Pouliot, Christian Hogrefe, Chuen-Meei Gan, Chao Wei

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA

12th Annual CMAS Conference, October 30, 2013


Motivation

Motivation

  • To extend the applicability of the two-way WRF-CMAQ model to hemispheric scales

  • To assess the model’s ability in reproducing the decadal changes in surface radiation (e.g. dimming and brightening) in the north hemisphere from 1990-2010 when significant of changes in emissions occurred

  • To provide boundary conditions for long-term regional-scale CMAQ simulations at finer resolution


Motivation

Outline

  • Emission processing & model configuration

  • Result discussion

    • Trends in AOD & Clear-sky Shortwave radiation (SWR)

    • Aerosol impacts on T2, PBL Height, SWR, PM2.5 and O3

    • Dust aerosol direct effects on clear-sky SWR

  • Summary


Motivation

Emission processing

Historic anthropogenic emissions in three regions over the past two decades

Primary PM10

SO2

NOx

  • Anthropogenicemissions were derived from EDGAR (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research);

  • Biogenic VOC and lightning NOx emissions were obtained from GEIA (Global Emission Inventory Activity);

  • Temporaldistribution was referred to EDGAR default profile;

  • Speciation was referred to SMOKE profile;

  • Verticalallocation was referred to SMOKE plume-rise and EMEP profile.


Motivation

Model Setup

Simulation domain:

  • 108×108 km resolution over northern hemisphere

  • 44 layers from surface to 50mb

  • Three sub-regions will be analyzed

East China

  • Simulation period: from 1990 to 2009 (summer time-JJA)

  • Two scenarios:

  • WRF-CMAQ(nf): no-feedback

  • WRF-CMAQ(sf): with shortwave feedback (-aerosol direct effects)

  • Hemispheric WRF-CMAQ two-way model

  • ─WRF3.4: NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data with 2.5 degree spatial and 6-hour temporal resolution; NCEP ADP Operational Global Surface/ Upper Air Observations with 6 hour intervals, MODIS land-use type, RRTMg radiation scheme, ACM2 (Pleim) PBL, PX LSM.

  • ─CMAQ5.0: Cb05-AERO6 chemistry, tropopause ozone calculated from PV (potential vorticity), inline photolysis, inline dust emission module.

Europe

East US


Motivation

Trend in Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)

JJA-average

2009

2000

MODIS+ SeaWiFS

  • MODIS - level 3 Terra

  • SeaWiFS - level 3 Deep Blue

  • Missing value in MODIS (mostly in Sahara Desert) was filled by SeaWiFS (550nm)

WRF-CMAQ (sf)

  • 533nm


Motivation

Trend in Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)

WRF-CMAQ(sf)

MODIS+ SeaWiFS

JJA-average

(2009 minus 2000)

East China

East US

Europe

from 1990 to 2009


Motivation

Trend in clear-sky shortwave radiation

JJA-average (2009 minus 2000)

Unit: W m-2

brightening

WRF-CMAQ(sf)

WRF-CMAQ(nf)

CERES

Dimming

East China

East US

Europe

from 1990 to 2009


Motivation

Aerosol impacts on Surface SW-radiation

1990

JJA-average from WRF-CMAQ

difference between sf and nf (i.e., sf - nf )

Unit: W m-2

2009

1990-2009


Motivation

Aerosol impacts on Surface Temperature

1990

JJA-average from WRF-CMAQ

difference between sf and nf (i.e., sf - nf )

Unit: K

2009

1990-2009


Motivation

Aerosol impacts on PBL Height

1990

JJA-average from WRF-CMAQ

difference between sf and nf (i.e., sf - nf )

Unit: meter

2009

1990-2009


Motivation

Simulated surface PM2.5 conc.

1990

JJA-average from WRF-CMAQ(sf)

Unit: µg m-3

2009

1990-2009


Motivation

Aerosol impacts on PM2.5 conc.

1990

difference between sf and nf (i.e., sf - nf )

Unit: µg m-3

1990-2009

2009


Motivation

Simulated surface O3 mixing ratio

1990

JJA 24 hour-average from WRF-CMAQ(sf)

Unit: ppbV

1990-2009

2009


Motivation

Aerosol impacts on O3 mixing ratio

1990

difference between sf and nf (i.e., sf - nf )

Unit: ppbV

1990-2009

2009


Motivation

Dust Aerosol impacts on Clear-sky SSR

(2006 minus 2000) Unit: W m-2

CERES

WRF-CMAQ (sf)

WRF-CMAQ (nf)

brightening

brightening

Dimming

Dimming

June

July


Motivation

Satellite (June)

Model (June)

Satellite (July)

Model (July)

brightening

SWR 2006-2000

Dimming

AOD 2006

AOD 2000


Motivation

Summary

  • Hemispheric WRF-CMAQ model system was successfully set up.

    • Results of magnitude and spatial distribution of AOD generally agree with MODIS satellite retrievals;

    • Trends of clear-sky SW-radiation roughly reflect the brightening & dimming in three regions.

  • Aerosol direct impacts were evaluated.

    • The reductions in surface solar radiation, surface-level temperature, and PBL height arising from aerosol direct effects show distinct trends in response to changes in regional aerosol loading

    • PM2.5 will be enhanced in industrial regions, but reduced in windblown dust area.

  • Capability of two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ model to represent the aerosol direct effects and to reproduce the observed changes in radiation was performed through comparison with CERES satellite retrieval.


Motivation

Thank you for your time!

Acknowledgement

  • This work was supported through and Inter-Agency Agreement between the EPA and DOE and does not represent the views of either Agency.

  • We also acknowledge the free use of EDGAR, GEIA, MODIS, SeaWiFS and CERES product.


Motivation

Hemisphere-CMAQ

EDGAR v42 gridded annual sectoral emissions 1990-2008

Projection system conversion, incl.:

Horizontal & Vertical distribution

Monthly/

Weekly/

Hourly

variation

CO

NH3

CH4

Speciation

SO2

SULF

SO2

NO2

NO

NOx

CB05 species

VOC

PSO4

PNO3

PM10

POC

PEC

PM2.5

PFINE

PMC

EDGAR HTAPv1 gridded annual sectoral emissions 2000-2005

EDGAR -default

SMOKE - default

GEIA

Framework of emission processing


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