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Assessment of aerosol direct effects on surface radiation in the northern hemisphere using two-way WRF-CMAQ model. Jia Xing, Jonathan Pleim, Rohit Mathur, David Wong, George Pouliot, Christian Hogrefe, Chuen-Meei Gan, Chao Wei

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Assessment of aerosol direct effects on surface radiation in the northern hemisphere using two-way WRF-CMAQ model

Jia Xing, Jonathan Pleim, Rohit Mathur, David Wong, George Pouliot, Christian Hogrefe, Chuen-Meei Gan, Chao Wei

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA

12th Annual CMAS Conference, October 30, 2013


Motivation

  • To extend the applicability of the two-way WRF-CMAQ model to hemispheric scales

  • To assess the model’s ability in reproducing the decadal changes in surface radiation (e.g. dimming and brightening) in the north hemisphere from 1990-2010 when significant of changes in emissions occurred

  • To provide boundary conditions for long-term regional-scale CMAQ simulations at finer resolution


Outline

  • Emission processing & model configuration

  • Result discussion

    • Trends in AOD & Clear-sky Shortwave radiation (SWR)

    • Aerosol impacts on T2, PBL Height, SWR, PM2.5 and O3

    • Dust aerosol direct effects on clear-sky SWR

  • Summary


Emission processing

Historic anthropogenic emissions in three regions over the past two decades

Primary PM10

SO2

NOx

  • Anthropogenicemissions were derived from EDGAR (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research);

  • Biogenic VOC and lightning NOx emissions were obtained from GEIA (Global Emission Inventory Activity);

  • Temporaldistribution was referred to EDGAR default profile;

  • Speciation was referred to SMOKE profile;

  • Verticalallocation was referred to SMOKE plume-rise and EMEP profile.


Model Setup

Simulation domain:

  • 108×108 km resolution over northern hemisphere

  • 44 layers from surface to 50mb

  • Three sub-regions will be analyzed

East China

  • Simulation period: from 1990 to 2009 (summer time-JJA)

  • Two scenarios:

  • WRF-CMAQ(nf): no-feedback

  • WRF-CMAQ(sf): with shortwave feedback (-aerosol direct effects)

  • Hemispheric WRF-CMAQ two-way model

  • ─WRF3.4: NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data with 2.5 degree spatial and 6-hour temporal resolution; NCEP ADP Operational Global Surface/ Upper Air Observations with 6 hour intervals, MODIS land-use type, RRTMg radiation scheme, ACM2 (Pleim) PBL, PX LSM.

  • ─CMAQ5.0: Cb05-AERO6 chemistry, tropopause ozone calculated from PV (potential vorticity), inline photolysis, inline dust emission module.

Europe

East US


Trend in Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)

JJA-average

2009

2000

MODIS+ SeaWiFS

  • MODIS - level 3 Terra

  • SeaWiFS - level 3 Deep Blue

  • Missing value in MODIS (mostly in Sahara Desert) was filled by SeaWiFS (550nm)

WRF-CMAQ (sf)

  • 533nm


Trend in Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)

WRF-CMAQ(sf)

MODIS+ SeaWiFS

JJA-average

(2009 minus 2000)

East China

East US

Europe

from 1990 to 2009


Trend in clear-sky shortwave radiation

JJA-average (2009 minus 2000)

Unit: W m-2

brightening

WRF-CMAQ(sf)

WRF-CMAQ(nf)

CERES

Dimming

East China

East US

Europe

from 1990 to 2009


Aerosol impacts on Surface SW-radiation

1990

JJA-average from WRF-CMAQ

difference between sf and nf (i.e., sf - nf )

Unit: W m-2

2009

1990-2009


Aerosol impacts on Surface Temperature

1990

JJA-average from WRF-CMAQ

difference between sf and nf (i.e., sf - nf )

Unit: K

2009

1990-2009


Aerosol impacts on PBL Height

1990

JJA-average from WRF-CMAQ

difference between sf and nf (i.e., sf - nf )

Unit: meter

2009

1990-2009


Simulated surface PM2.5 conc.

1990

JJA-average from WRF-CMAQ(sf)

Unit: µg m-3

2009

1990-2009


Aerosol impacts on PM2.5 conc.

1990

difference between sf and nf (i.e., sf - nf )

Unit: µg m-3

1990-2009

2009


Simulated surface O3 mixing ratio

1990

JJA 24 hour-average from WRF-CMAQ(sf)

Unit: ppbV

1990-2009

2009


Aerosol impacts on O3 mixing ratio

1990

difference between sf and nf (i.e., sf - nf )

Unit: ppbV

1990-2009

2009


Dust Aerosol impacts on Clear-sky SSR

(2006 minus 2000) Unit: W m-2

CERES

WRF-CMAQ (sf)

WRF-CMAQ (nf)

brightening

brightening

Dimming

Dimming

June

July


Satellite (June)

Model (June)

Satellite (July)

Model (July)

brightening

SWR 2006-2000

Dimming

AOD 2006

AOD 2000


Summary

  • Hemispheric WRF-CMAQ model system was successfully set up.

    • Results of magnitude and spatial distribution of AOD generally agree with MODIS satellite retrievals;

    • Trends of clear-sky SW-radiation roughly reflect the brightening & dimming in three regions.

  • Aerosol direct impacts were evaluated.

    • The reductions in surface solar radiation, surface-level temperature, and PBL height arising from aerosol direct effects show distinct trends in response to changes in regional aerosol loading

    • PM2.5 will be enhanced in industrial regions, but reduced in windblown dust area.

  • Capability of two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ model to represent the aerosol direct effects and to reproduce the observed changes in radiation was performed through comparison with CERES satellite retrieval.


Thank you for your time!

Acknowledgement

  • This work was supported through and Inter-Agency Agreement between the EPA and DOE and does not represent the views of either Agency.

  • We also acknowledge the free use of EDGAR, GEIA, MODIS, SeaWiFS and CERES product.


Hemisphere-CMAQ

EDGAR v42 gridded annual sectoral emissions 1990-2008

Projection system conversion, incl.:

Horizontal & Vertical distribution

Monthly/

Weekly/

Hourly

variation

CO

NH3

CH4

Speciation

SO2

SULF

SO2

NO2

NO

NOx

CB05 species

VOC

PSO4

PNO3

PM10

POC

PEC

PM2.5

PFINE

PMC

EDGAR HTAPv1 gridded annual sectoral emissions 2000-2005

EDGAR -default

SMOKE - default

GEIA

Framework of emission processing


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