Effect of Sonication on bacterial and Serum protein extraction
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Effect of Sonication on bacterial and Serum protein extraction.

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Effect of Sonication on bacterial and Serum protein extraction

Sonication is the process by which the high energy sound waves causing cell lyses, rupture of cell wall, causes release of contents from the cell. The method is more effective in cell disruption. Due to its high efficiency the method is highly suitable fro the protein extraction from the cell and the serum samples

  • Related LOs: Sonication

    > Prior Viewing – IDD-1. Extraction of bacterial protein, IDD-6. Extraction of serum protein.

    > Future Viewing – IDD-11. Protein quantification, IDD-14. Isoelectric focusing, IDD-17. SDS-PAGE

  • Course Name: Sonication on bacteria and serum protein extract

  • Level(UG/PG): UG

  • Author(s): Dinesh Raghu, Vinayak Pachapur

  • Mentor: Dr. Sanjeeva Srivastava


Learning objectives extraction

1

  • The study helps the listener to learn :

  • Define the mechanism of cell lysing by sonication

  • Operate the steps involved in the extraction technique

  • Outline the precautions to be followed during the sonication.

  • Infer the steps involved to perform experiment.

  • Assess the troubleshooting steps involved in the experiments.

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Master Layout extraction

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Serum Sample processing (Slide:4)

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Buffer Treatment (Slide: 5-6)

Sonication (Slide: 7-10)

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Bacteria Sample processing (Slide:11-12 )

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Buffer Treatment (Slide: 13)

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Sonication (Slide: 14-17)


Description of the action/ interactivity extraction

Audio Narration (if any)‏

Animate removal of sample by opening the freezer and take the tube labeled as sample from -80 C and placing it on the ice for 15min, animate the effect with user interaction. During 15min zoom the tubes and animate the frozen solution changing to liquid phase. Show the user taking the pipette out removal of required amount of serum and transfer it to the new tube. Place the old tube in freezer. This should happen with user click. Kindly redraw the figures

Step 1:

T1:Sample processing

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Remove the serum from -80 C and allow it to thaw by keeping it on ice for 15 min.

Transfer the required amount of the serum to the fresh, clean eppendorf tube for further sample processing. Transfer of sample must be a quick process.

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Step 2

Description of the action/ interactivity extraction

Audio Narration (if any)‏

Step 2:

  • T2:Buffer addition

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Show phosphate buffer bottle, instruct user to set the pipette to 500ul, pipette out the buffer as the user clicks on it and adding it to the tube labeled as serum for dilution. The user should click on the pipette for the action to be done.

Kindly redraw the figures

Dilute the serum 5 times using phosphate buffer of pH 7.4, which helps to maintain the buffer during the sonication step.

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Step 3

Description of the action/ interactivity extraction

Audio Narration (if any)‏

Step 3:

  • T2:Buffer addition

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Instruct user to vortex the tube, hand animate by picking the tube and placing on top of rubber pad for vortex and clicking “ON” button. During vortex, animate the mixing of solution. The user should click on start button for vortex. kindly redraw the figures

Vortex the sample to achieve uniform mixing

Vortex the sample to achieve uniform mixing.

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Step 31

Description of the action/ interactivity extraction

Audio Narration (if any)‏

Step 3:

T3:Sonication

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Instruct user to place the tube on ice, with cap open. Show the sonicator instrument, place the tube such that the tip of sonicator rod touching the solution in the tube animate like the user adjusting the rod and dipping the tube in ice. Now display the screen of sonicator, to make the necessary setup like pulses, time and amplitude with help of user interaction and use the required values from the right hand side to set the parameter settings.

user should click on the sonicator to proceed with sonication.

Keep the sample on ice and start sonication by providing 6 cycles of pulses for 5sec, 20% amplitude with 5sec gap. Sonication carries out cell lysis which helps for protein extraction.

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Step 32

Description of the action/ interactivity extraction

Audio Narration (if any)‏

Step 3:

T3:Sonication

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sonication

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Zoom in a aggregation as in the figure from the tube. Show the sound waves hitting the those aggregation and causing separation/ splitting of aggreagated protein and the release of contents. Please redraw the figure

High frequency sound waves split the aggregated serum proteins and thereby makes the sample easy for further analysis

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Description of the action/ interactivity extraction

Audio Narration (if any)‏

After sonication, zoom the tube, instruct user to click on the tube for the contents display. Animate the user interaction.

Step 3:

T3:Sonication

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After sonication, the cells are lysed now serum contains high abundance proteins like, albumin, IgA, IgG, haptoglobin along with low abundance protein. High abundance protein will interfere in gel separation and prevent the separation of low abundance proteins. After sonication steps the sample is taken for further purification process.

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Step 3: extraction

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Purification steps same as IDD-6. Extraction of serum protein from Slide : 17-32. For more information on the extraction steps go through future viewing IDD.

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Step 1

Description of the action/ interactivity extraction

Audio Narration (if any)‏

Step 1:

T1: Sample preparation (bacterial)

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Inoculation same as in IDD-1. Extraction of bacterial protein.

Instruct user to open the lid of centrifuge and rotor. Zoom in the rotor, balance equal number of tubes inside the rotor. Close the lid of rotor and of centrifuge with hand action. Instruct user to set the rpm, temperature and time parameters. animate this in the display where

user can increase and decrease the values of set parameters. Animate the clock for 30min. Kindly redraw the figures

Transfer the bacterial culture into the clean centrifuge tube under aseptic condition.Centrifuge the culture for 10 min at 12000 rpm maintaining at 4’C

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Step 21

Description of the action/ interactivity extraction

Audio Narration (if any)‏

Step 2:

T1: Sample preparation (bacterial)

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After 10min, instruct user to open the lid of centrifuge, rotor and animate the hand action to left the tube from rotor. Now zoom the tube with pellet on bottom and liquid (supernatant) over it as shown in figure. Now pipette out top portion (supernatant) completely into the discard, the action should take place only when the user clicks on the pipette and the tube. Kindly redraw the figures

Remove the supernatant completely without disturbing the pellet, now take the pellet for further processing.

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Step 22

Description of the action/ interactivity extraction

Audio Narration (if any)‏

Step 2:

T2: Buffer treatment

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Show phosphate buffer bottle, instruct user to pipette into the tube. The user should click on the pipette for the action to be done.

Kindly redraw the figures

Wash the pellet with phosphate buffer thoroughly to remove the excess broth. Once broth is removed completely, cell lysis need to be carried out.

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Step 33

Description of the action/ interactivity extraction

Audio Narration (if any)‏

Step 3:

T3: Sonication

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Instruct user to place the tube on ice, with cap open. Show the sonicator instrument, place the tube such that the tip of sonicator rod touches the solution in the tube. Now display the screen of sonicator , to make the necessary setup with help of user interaction.

user should click on the sonicator to proceed with sonication.

Keep the sample on ice and start sonication by providing 6 cycles of pulses for 5 sec ,20% amplitude with 5 sec gap. Sonication carries out cell lysis which helps for protein extraction.

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Step 34

Description of the action/ interactivity extraction

Audio Narration (if any)‏

Step 3:

T3: Sonication

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High frequency sound waves

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Zoom in a cell from the tube. Show the sound waves hitting the cell and causing cell lyses and the release of contents. Animate cell breaking with release of content into the tube from inside the cell. Please redraw the figure

High frequency sound waves break open the cell wall and the contents are released into the buffer

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Step 35

Description of the action/ interactivity extraction

Audio Narration (if any)‏

Step 3:

T3: Sonication

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Carry out the 3 centrifuge process as described earlier. The user should click on “ Start” for the centrifugation to on. Please redraw the figure

Centrifuge the contents to remove the debris and collect the supernatant for further processing.

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Step 3: extraction

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Extraction steps are same as IDD-1. Extraction of bacterial protein from Slide : 16-32

For more information on the purification steps go through future viewing IDD.

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Button 01 extraction

Button 02

Button 03

Slide 11-12

Slide 13

Slide 14-17

Slide 4

Slide 5-6

Slide 7-10

Tab 01

Tab 02

Tab 03

Tab 04

Tab 05

Tab 06

Tab 07

Name of the section/stage: BACTERIAL CULTURE

Animation area

Interaction 1: slide-14: user carrying out sonication without cooling on ice bath, no gap between the bursts and proceeds further.

Instructions: let user place the tube on ice packs at the time of sonication and gives a time delay for few seconds between the bursts.

Interaction 2: slide-14: user carrying out sonication for longer time.

Instructions: animate the tube getting hot and starts melting. Excessive sonication will lead to heating and ice packs helps down in cooling the sample.

Interactivity

area

Instructions/ Working area

Credits


Questionnaire: extraction

APPENDIX 1

Question 1

Amplitude used for the sonication of serum is

  • 20%

  • 30%

  • 40%

  • 50%

    Answer: 20%

What is the purpose of sonication in bacterial protein extraction?

  • To mix the culture

  • To denature the protein

  • To denature the nucleotides

  • To lyse the cells

    Answer: To lyse the cells


Questionnaire: extraction

APPENDIX 1

What is the purpose of sonication in serum protein extraction?

  • To mix the culture

  • To deplete high abundance protein

  • To denature the nucleotides

  • To break the protein aggregates

  • Answer: To break the protein aggregates


APPENDIX 2 extraction

Links for further reading

Chen JH, Chang YW, Yao CW et al. Plasma proteome of severe acute respiratory syndrome analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A2004, 7;101(49):17039-44.

Eymann C, Dreisbach A, Albrecht D. A comprehensive proteome map of growing Bacillus subtilis cells.

Proteomics. 2004 :2849-76.

Maldonado AM, Echevarría-Zomeño S, Jean-Baptiste S. et al. Evaluation of three different protocols of protein extraction for Arabidopsis thaliana leaf proteome analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Proteomics 2008, 71(4):461-72.

2DE Tutorials by Angelika Görg : http://www.wzw.tum.de/blm/deg/

BOOKS Biochemistry by Stryer et al., 5th edition

Biochemistry by A.L.Lehninger et al., 3rd edition

Biochemistry by Voet & Voet, 3rd edition


APPENDIX 3 extraction

Summary

Ultrasonic waves generated by a sonicator lyse cells through shear forces.

Complete shearing is obtained when maximal agitation is achieved, but care

must be taken to minimize heating and foaming.

Sonicate cell suspension in short bursts to avoid heating.Cool on ice between bursts. Sonication is a vigorous way of cell lysis.


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