Deep chandra and xmm newton observations of ngc 4472
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Deep chandra and xmm newton observations of ngc 4472

Deep Chandra and XMM-Newton Observations of NGC 4472

R. P. Kraft, S. W. Randall, W. R. Forman, P. E. J. Nulsen, C. Jones, A. Bogdan, M. J. Hardcastle, E. Hallman, T. Maccarone, T. Joseph, S. Raychaudhury, D. Evans, G. Sivakoff, C. Sarazin (+ M. Machacek, J. ZuHone, R. Johnson)

SAO/University of Hertfordshire/Southampton University/Birmingham University/University of Alberta/University of Virginia

29JUN11 - Presentation at ‘The X-ray Universe 2011’ conference


Introduction cluster and group mergers potpourri of gas dynamics
Introduction – Cluster and Group Mergers – Potpourri of Gas Dynamics

  • Merging is central to the hierarchical formation of structure paradigm

  • Chandra and XMM-Newton have studied large number of cluster and group mergers

    • Shocks/supersonic infall (e.g. Bullet Cluster)

    • Cold fronts/ram pressure stripping (e.g. Fornax cluster, M86)

    • Sloshing (e.g. Abell 1795, NGC 7618/UGC 12941)

Shocks

Sloshing

Cold Fronts


Introduction cluster and group mergers potpourri of gas dynamics1
Introduction – Cluster and Group Mergers – Potpourri of Gas Dynamics

  • Merging is central to the hierarchical formation of structure paradigm

  • Chandra and XMM-Newton have studied large number of cluster and group mergers

    • Shocks/supersonic infall (e.g. Bullet Cluster)

    • Cold fronts/ram pressure stripping (e.g. Fornax cluster, M86)

    • Sloshing (e.g. Abell 1795, NGC 7618/UGC 12941)

Shocks

Entropy, temperature, and emission weighted projected temperature from cold front simulation (Heinz et al. 2003)

Sloshing

Cold Fronts


Introduction what is ngc 4472 and why do we care
Introduction – What is NGC 4472 and why do we care Gas Dynamics

  • NGC 4472 is most optically luminous galaxy in local Universe

  • Member of Virgo cluster (d=17 Mpc, 1”=80 pc)

  • Lies at virial radius (1.35 Mpc) of the Virgo cluster

  • MSMBH=6x108 M

  • Best example of group/cluster merger in local Universe for detailed study

    • Proximity

    • Luminosity

    • Gas temperature (<1.5 keV)

  • Chandra LP (380 ks total) approved in last AO

  • Received data 3 months ago

ROSAT mosaic of Virgo cluster (Bohringeret al. 1995)


Previous x ray observations biller et al 2004 and kraft et al 2011
Previous X-ray Observations (Biller Gas Dynamicset al. 2004 and Kraft et al. 2011)

Direction of infall

M87

100 ks XMM-Newton (PI: T. Maccarone) – MOS1+2 in 0.5-1.0 keV band


Broadband overview
Broadband Overview Gas Dynamics

  • 380 ks Chandra/ACIS-S

  • Smoothed (s=1.5’’), exposure corrected

  • 0.5-2.0 keV band

  • Point sources removed

  • Features of Interest

  • Multiple Surface Brightness Discontinuities

  • Filamentary Arms Around Radio Bubbles + cavities

  • Large scale X-ray filaments to the E and SW of the nucleus (seen by XMM)


Narrower bands
Narrower Bands Gas Dynamics

0.7-0.9 keV

1.1-1.5 keV


Core region
Core Region Gas Dynamics

9.7 kpc

0.5-2.0 keV image with radio contours overlaid

Temperature map with radio contours overlaid

  • Gas core is clearly sloshing

  • Complex temperature structure aligned with radio lobes - Uplift


Radio outburst
Radio Outburst Gas Dynamics

  • Density jump implies M=1.1-1.2

  • Pmech=1.3x1057 ergs

  • Significant energy in shocks+uplift(e.g. filaments in Hyd A)

1.1-1.5 keV band, smoothed exposure corrected

Shock visible in harder band

Similar to shocks in M87


Temperature map 1000 counts per cell
Temperature map (1000 counts per cell) Gas Dynamics

On scales of tens of kpc, hot gas distributed asymmetrically around nucleus

Cold filaments to the E and SW of the core – relic buoyant radio bubble?

Origin? Related to merger process? Sloshing?

Looks much different than Abell 3667 and the simulations of Heinz et al. (2003)


Temperature map 1000 counts per cell1
Temperature map (1000 counts per cell) Gas Dynamics

On scales of tens of kpc, cold gas is distributed asymmetrically around nucleus

Cold filaments to the E and SW of the core – relic buoyant radio bubble?

Origin? Related to merger process?

Looks much different than Abell 3667 and the simulations of Heinz et al. (2003)

Abell 3667 (Vikhlininet al. 2001)


Discontinuities in large scale gas
Discontinuities in large scale gas Gas Dynamics

kBT=0.96±0.02 keV

Zfe=0.47±0.04

Zsi=0.68±0.07

kBT=1.04±0.02

Zfe=0.36±0.04

Zsi=0.56±0.07

Small temperature jump across discontinuity – significant abundance jump

Evidence of flow separation (?) or just sloshing


Discontinuities in large scale gas1
Discontinuities in large scale gas Gas Dynamics

kBT=0.96±0.02 keV

Zfe=0.47±0.04

Zsi=0.68±0.07

kBT=1.04±0.02

Zfe=0.36±0.04

Zsi=0.56±0.07

Small temperature jump across discontinuity – significant abundance jump

Evidence of flow separation (?) or just sloshing

Retail≈1000 assuming Spitzer type viscosity


Infall into the virgo cluster
Infall Gas Dynamics into the Virgo Cluster

What is NGC 4472 falling into?

Infall velocity between 1200 and 2500 km s-1

Could this be the WHIM? Virgo cluster gas falling back into NGC 4472 group potential?

M87

M49


Infall into the virgo cluster1
Infall Gas Dynamics into the Virgo Cluster

What is NGC 4472 falling into?

Infall velocity between 1000 and 2500 km s-1

Could this be the WHIM?

NGC 4649 group created sloshing structures in M87 (Rodigeret al.2011)

M87

M49

NGC 4522 – small spiral

RPS -> 4000 km s-1!! (Kenney et al. 2004)


Preliminary conclusions and future work
Preliminary Conclusions and Future Work Gas Dynamics

  • NGC 4472 clearly not a ‘classical’ cold front

  • Disentangling everything will not be trivial!

  • Detected a weak shock around radio lobe + evidence up significant uplift

  • Multiple contact discontinuities in gas tail from merger – flow separation (?)

  • Large-scale mosaic with XMM-Newton from NGC 4472 to NGC 4261 needed!

  • Need better radio data!


Hydrodynamic simulation of group cluster merger from john zuhone and cold front heinz et al 2003
Hydrodynamic Simulation of Group/Cluster Merger (from John Gas DynamicsZuHone) and Cold Front (Heinz et al. 2003)

Entropy, temperature, and emission weighted projected temperature from cold front simulation (Heinz et al. 2003)

Temperature slice of supersonic merger


Nuclear outburst and feedback
Nuclear Outburst and Feedback Gas Dynamics

  • Feedback now a central theme in astrophysics – particularly relevant to clusters and galaxies

  • Many Chandra studies of supersonic inflation of radio lobes – Cen A, M87, Per A, Her A, etc.

  • Suppress cooling flows, control star formation, distribute metals

  • Less dramatic outbursts more common and probably more important!

Cen A (Kraft et al. 2008)

M87 (Forman et al. 2005)


Active nucleus
Active Nucleus Gas Dynamics

9.7 kpc

0.5-2.0 keV image with radio contours overlaid

Temperature map with radio contours overlaid

  • n0=0.2 cm-3, kBT=700 eV

  • Pbondi=5x1044 ergs s-1,Pmech=5x1042 ergs s-1, Lx= 2x1038 ergs s-1

  • Complex temperature structure of gas makes it difficult to study Bondi flow


Compact binary population
Compact Gas DynamicsBinary Population

  • Disk BB Temperature versus Lx (curves from Gierlinski & Done 2004)

  • Filled squares – NGC 4472 (Joseph et al. in preparation)

  • Crosses – NGC 3379 (Brassingtonet al. 2009)

  • Dozens/hundreds of points on this graph (Cen A, NGC 4649, M31, etc.)


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