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Chapter 11 Slavery and the Old South. The American People , 6 th ed. Building a Diverse Cotton Kingdom. The Expansion of Slavery in a Global Economy.

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Chapter 11 slavery and the old south

Chapter 11Slavery and the Old South

The American People, 6th ed.

The expansion of slavery in a global economy
The Expansion of Slavery in a Global Economy

  • In 1860 the American South, if independent, would have been one of the wealthiest countries in the world based on the revenue of the cotton trade.

  • Cotton cultivation and its expansion depended on technological development, land, labor, demand, and a global system of trade.

Slavery in latin america
Slavery in Latin America

  • Europeans depended on African slavery in their New World colonies.

  • African slaves were imported to replace the indigenous populations that were eradicated by disease.

  • Sugar production was the cash crop for the Latin American holdings of the European powers.

White and black migrations in the south
White and Black Migrations in the South

  • Between 1830 and 1860, southerners began to migrate in a southwest direction to fill up the fertile land and increase cotton production for the mills of England.

  • The center of cotton production gradually shifted from South Carolina to Mississippi.

  • An estimated 1 million slaves were transported westward by this white migration.

Paternalism and honor in the planter class
Paternalism and Honor in the Planter Class

  • Most Southern males adhered to a long-standing tradition of medieval chivalry and aversion to industrialization.

  • The Southern planters developed a paternalistic attitude towards his slaves; a kindly father-and-child relationship.

  • An intensely masculine code of honor placed the virtue of women on a pedestal.

  • The smallest insult could lead to pistol duels.

Yeoman farmers
Yeoman Farmers

  • Most slaveholders (70 percent) belonged to the mid-level yeoman farmer class.

  • A Yeoman farmer might have owned as many as ten slaves, but usually work alongside them.

  • 75 percent of all southerners held no slaves at all.

Justifying slavery
Justifying Slavery

  • Biblical Justification: ancient curse upon Ham, a child of Noah and other references

  • Historical Justification: all great civilizations participated in slavery

  • Legal Justification: the U.S. Constitution refused to address slavery directly

  • Scientific Justification: multiple theories regarding inferiority of the black race

  • Sociological Justification: the black race as societal “children” that needed paternalistic guidance

Daily toil
Daily Toil

  • Slaves were expected to work an average of 14 hours per day during warm weather and 10 hours in the winter.

  • Work gangs of 20 to 25 slaves labored under the whip of a “slave driver.”

  • The task system allowed slaves to finish a designated task each day at their own pace.

  • A normal slave was expected to pick 130 to 150 pounds of cotton a day.

Slave law and the family
Slave Law and the Family

  • The legal status of slaves in the South was never fully resolved, leading to a wide range of laws governing the treatment of African Americans.

  • Marriages between slaves were often arranged for optimal genetic reproduction.

  • Slave families were often separated.

Black christianity
Black Christianity

  • Christian worship was an integral part of life in the slave quarters.

  • Black Christianity often included aspects of Islamic and African religions.

  • Black religious gatherings were usually forbidden unless a white overseer was present.

  • For the white planters, religion became a type of social control.

The enduring family
The Enduring Family

  • Family relationships were central to the lives of most slaves.

  • Slaves could draw love, protection, support, knowledge, and cultural identity from these extended families.

  • Slaves often performed extra work to provide extra food and clothing for their families.

Forms of black protest
Forms of Black Protest

  • Daily acts of resistance might include breaking of tools, burning houses or crops, stealing food, self mutilation or simple work slowdowns.

  • Females might fake sickness or menstrual cramps.

  • The ultimate forms were murder or running away.