Duration of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation
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A Pooled Analysis of the REAL-LATE and the ZEST-LATE Trial - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Duration of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation . A Pooled Analysis of the REAL-LATE and the ZEST-LATE Trial . Seung-Jung Park, MD, PhD, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center on behalf of the REAL-LATE and the ZEST-LATE trial .

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Duration of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation

A Pooled Analysis of

the REAL-LATE and the ZEST-LATE Trial

Seung-Jung Park, MD, PhD,

University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center

on behalf of the REAL-LATE and the ZEST-LATE trial

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Disclosure Information Stent Implantation

Supported by research grants from

by the Cardiovascular Research Foundation,

Seoul, Korea, and a grant from the Korea Health

21 R&D Project, Ministry of Health and Welfare,

Korea (0412-CR02-0704-0001).

No industry sponsorship relevant to this study

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Background Stent Implantation

  • The use of drug-eluting stents (DES) is associated with significant reductions in restenosis and target-lesion revascularization compared with use of bare-metal stents (BMS).

  • Based on the pivotal trials, DES have been widely used for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in clinical practice.

  • However, some longer-term studies have reported that DES are associated with increased rates of late stent thrombosis, mortality or myocardial infarction compared to BMS.

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Background Stent Implantation

  • Early discontinuation of dual antiplatelet therapy has been identified as a risk factor for late stent thrombosis with drug-eluting stents.

  • Current PCI guidelines recommend that clopidogrel 75 mg daily should be given for at least 12 months after implantation of DES if patients are not at high risk of bleeding.

  • However, the optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy and the risk–benefit ratio of long-term dual antiplatelet therapy remain uncertain for patients receiving DES

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Objective Stent Implantation

  • The findings of observational studies have been inconsistent, and no randomized trials have been performed to address this issue.

  • Accordingly, we evaluated the effect of extended dual antiplatelet therapy beyond 12 months on long-term clinical outcomes in patients who underwent initial PCI with drug-eluting stents.

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Study Design Stent Implantation

  • This analysis merged data from two concurrent RCTs (the REAL-LATE and the ZEST-LATE trial) comparing clopidogrel continuation versus discontinuation in patients who were event-free for at least 12 months after DES.

  • The study designs of the two trials were similar; the main difference was that the ZEST-LATE trial included only individuals who had participated in the “ZEST” trial. The REAL-LATE trial enrolled a broader population of patients without limitations on clinical or lesion characteristics.

  • The two trials were merged as the result of a decision of the two Executive Committees, which was based on slower than anticipated enrollment in the two individual trials and substantial similarities in their designs. The DSMB agreed to the merger.

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Correlation of Clopidogrel Therapy Discontinuation in Stent Implantation REAL-world Patients Treated with Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation and Late Coronary Arterial Thrombotic Events:


Patients on current dual antiplatelet therapy without MACCE or major bleeding

for at least the first 12 months after DES implantation (Total N=2,000)

1:1 randomization Stratified by (1) centers

(2) Initial DES types

Aspirin Mono-therapy


Aspirin + clopidogrel



Regular Clinical assessment after randomization

Primary end points: The composite of cardiac death or MI

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Evaluation of the Long-term Safety After Stent Implantation Zotarolimus-Eluting Stent, Sirolimus-Eluting Stent, or PacliTaxel-Eluting Stent Implantation for Coronary Lesions - Late Coronary Arterial Thrombotic Events


Patients without MACCE or major bleeding

within the first 12 months, who enrolled in the ZEST Trial (N=2,000)

1:1 randomization stratified by

(1) initial DES type

(2) Enrolling sites

Aspirin + clopidogrel



Aspirin Mono-therapy


Regular clinical assessment after randomization

Primary end points: The composite of cardiac death or MI

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ZEST Trial Stent Implantation

All Comer requiring PCI with DES for coronary lesions

in 19 Centers of Korea

(Total 2,640 patients)

Randomize 1:1:1

stratified by 1) Sites, 2) Diabetes, 3) Long lesions (≥ 28 mm)



TAXUS Liberte™




Clinical follow-up at 12 months

Angiographic follow-up at 9 months

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Enrollment Criteria Stent Implantation

  • Inclusion Criteria

  • Patients had undergone implantation of a DES at least 12 months before enrollment, had not had a major adverse cardiovascular event (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or repeat revascularization) or major bleeding, and remained on dual antiplatelet therapy at the time of enrollment.

  • Exclusion Criteria

  • contraindications to antiplatelet drugs.

  • Concomitant vascular disease requiring long-term use of clopidogrel or other established indications for clopidogrel therapy.

  • Non-cardiac co-morbid conditions with life expectancy <1 year

  • Participants in another drug or coronary-device study.

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Trial Procedures and Follow-Up Stent Implantation

  • Patients in both trials were randomly assigned either to clopidogrel (75 mg per day) plus low-dose aspirin (100 to 200 mg per day) or low-dose aspirin alone.

  • The treatment allocation was performed using a preestablished, computer-generated randomization scheme, stratified according to site and type of DES.

  • Both were open-label trials without blinding of either the study subjects or the investigators.

  • Follow-up evaluations were performed every six months. at these visits, data pertaining to patients’ clinical status, all interventions, outcome events, adverse events, and drug compliance were recorded.

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End Points Stent Implantation

Primary End Points

  • The first occurrence of cardiac death or myocardial infarction after treatment assignment.

Secondary End Points

  • Each component of death, myocardial infarction, stroke (of any cause), definite stent thrombosis, or repeat revascularization

  • Composite death or myocardial infarction

  • Composite death, myocardial infarction or stroke

  • Composite cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or stroke

  • Major bleeding, according to the TIMI definition.

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Sample Size Estimation Stent Implantation

  • The assumed rates of the primary end point and the assumed relative risk reduction were based on historical data (the BASEKET-LATE study and the Duke registry data).

  • Assuming a predicted event rate of 5.0% at two years for the primary end point in patients who were assigned to discontinue clopidogrel, we estimated that 1,812 patients (906 per group) would be necessary to detect a 50% reduction in relative risk with prolonged clopidogrel use, with 80% power at the two-sided 0.05 significance level.

  • The planned sample size was increased by 10 percent to allow for noncompliance and for loss to follow-up, giving a total overall enrollment goal of 2000 patients for each trial.

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Statistical Analysis Stent Implantation

  • All enrolled patients from both trials were included in the analysis of primary and secondary clinical outcomes according to the intention-to-treat principle.

  • Differences between treatment groups were evaluated by Student’s t-test for continuous variables and by the chi-square or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables.

  • Cumulative event curves were generated by means of the Kaplan-Meier method.

  • We used a Cox proportional-hazards model to compare clinical outcomes between the groups.

  • An additional stratified Cox regression analysis was performed to test whether merging of the data from the two trials would influence the primary outcome.

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Results Stent Implantation

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Baseline Characteristics Stent Implantation

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Outcomes Stent Implantation

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Primary End Point: cardiac death or myocardial infarction Stent Implantation









Log-rank, P=0.17

No. at Risk

Continuation group 1357 1122 299

Discontinuation group 1344 1100 301

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Death from Any Cause Stent Implantation









Log-rank, P=0.24

No. at Risk

Continuation group 1357 1125 302

Discontinuation group 1344 1103 303

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Definite Stent Thrombosis Stent Implantation









Log-rank, P=0.76

No. at Risk

Continuation group 1357 1124 301

Discontinuation group 1344 1102 303

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Death, Myocardial Infarction, or Stroke Stent Implantation









Log-rank, P=0.048

No. at Risk

Continuation group 1357 1119 295

Discontinuation group 1344 1097 300

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Conclusion Stent Implantation

  • In this combined analysis of two randomized multi-center trials, we found no significant benefit associated with clopidogrel continuation as compared with clopidogrel discontinuation after 12 months in reducing the incidence of cardiac death or myocardial infarction for patients who had received drug-eluting coronary stents.

  • The rate of composite outcomes (all-cause or cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) was greater with clopidogrel continuation than with clopidogrel discontinuation, but this difference was not statistically significant.

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Conclusion Stent Implantation

  • However, the study had insufficient statistical power to allow a firm conclusion regarding the safety of clopidogrel discontinuation after 12 months.

  • Larger clinical trials will be necessary to resolve this issue.

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Thank You !! Stent Implantation