A common web language
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A Common Web Language. Hiroshi Uchida ISeC (Institute of Semantic Computing). Semantic Computing, CDL and UNL. [+core_ontology]. CDL:=Concept Description Language. UNL. R+A. UW. icl. met. CDL.nl. agt. think. Computer. Natural Language. Common Web Language. met. OWL RDF/XML.

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A Common Web Language

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A common web language

A Common Web Language

Hiroshi Uchida

ISeC

(Institute of Semantic Computing)


Semantic computing cdl and unl

Semantic Computing, CDL and UNL

[+core_ontology]

CDL:=Concept Description Language

UNL

R+A

UW

icl

met

CDL.nl

agt

think

Computer

Natural Language

Common Web Language

met

OWL RDF/XML

agt

person

think


Unl a language for computers

UNLa language for computers

  • Artificial language (Semantic Network with Hyper Node)

    A node represents a concept

    An arc represents a relation

    A node can be annotated by attributes

  • Consists of;

    Universal Words: vocabulary

    Relations, Attributes:syntax

    Knowledge Base:semantics


A common web language

Long ago, in the city of Babylon, the people begun to build a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

long ago

people

huge

tim agt agt aoj

tower

begun

build

obj obj

plc obj obj

city

reach

seemed

obj

mod

gol

Babylon

heaven


A common web language

Long ago, in the city of Babylon, the people begun to build a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

{unl}

tim(begin(agt>thing,obj>thing).@entry.@past,long ago(icl>ago))

mod(city(icl>region).@def,Babylon(icl>city))

plc(begin(agt>thing,obj>thing).@entry.@past,city(icl>region).@def)

agt(begin(agt>thing,obj>thing).@entry.@past,people(icl>person).@def)

obj(begin(agt>thing,obj>thing).@entry.@past,build(agt>thing,obj>thing)@past)

agt(build(agt>thing,obj>thing),people(icl>person).@def)

obj(build(agt>thing,obj>thing)),tower(icl>building))

aoj(huge(icl>big),tower(icl>building))

aoj(seem(aoj>thing).@past,tower(icl>building))

obj(seem(aoj>thing).@past,reach(icl>come).@begin.@soon)

obj(reach(icl>come).@begin.@soon,tower(icl>building))

gol(reach(icl>come).@begin.@soon,heaven(icl>region).@def.@pl)

{/unl}


History of unl

History of UNL

  • Started in 1996, as an initiative of the UNU/IAS in Japan

  • R&D

    UNU/IAS and other 19 research institutes

    Development on 18 languages

    Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Greek, German, Hindi, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Latvian,Mongol, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Thai, Swahili

  • Transfer to the UNDL Foundation in 2001


Relation

Relation

  • Constitutes syntax of the UNL

  • Expresses objectivity together with UWs

  • Expresses how concepts(UW) constitutes a sentence related each other

  • 38 relations

    agtand aoj bas cag cao cnt cob con coo dur fmt frm ins man met mod nam obj or per plc plf plt pof pos ptn pur qua rsn scn seq src tim tmf tmt to via


Relation1

Relation

agtagent

a thing in focus that initiates an action

and conjunction

a partner to have conjunctive relation

aojthing with attribute

a thing that is in a state or has an attribute

basbasis

a thing used as the basis (standard) of comparison

benbeneficiary

an indirectly related beneficiary or victim of an event or state

cagco-agent

a thing not in focus that initiates an implicit event that is done in parallel

caoco-thing with attribute

a thing not in focus that is in a parallel state


Relation2

Relation

cntcontent

the content of a concept

iclincluded/a kind of

an upper concept or a more general concept

Insinstrument

a instrument to carry out an event

Intintersection

a partner to take an intersection

Iofan instance of

a class concept that an instance belongs to

manmanner

a way to carry out an event or characteristics of a state

metmethod

means to carry out an event

modmodification

a thing that restricts a focused thing

namname

a name of a thing


Relation3

Relation

objaffected thing

a thing in focus that is directly effected by an event or state

oplaffected place

a place in focus affected by an event

ordisjunction

a partner to have disjunctive relation

perproportion, rate of distribution

a basis or unit of proportion, rate of distribution

plcplace

the place where an event occurs, or a state is true, or a thing exists

plfinitial place

the place where an event begins or a state becomes true

pltfinal place

the place where an event ends or a state becomes false

pofpart-of

a concept of which a focused thing is a part


Relation4

Relation

pospossessor

a possessor of a thing

ptnpartner

an indispensable non-focused initiator of an action

purpurpose or objective

the purpose or objective of an agent of an event or the purpose of a thing which exists

quaquantity

quantity of a thing or unit

rsnreason

a reason why an event or a state happens

scnscene

a scene where an event occurs, or state is true, or a thing exists

seqsequence

a prior event or state of a focused event or state

Srcsource/initial state

the initial state of an object or thing initially associated with the object of an event


Relation5

Relation

timTime

the time an event occurs or a state is true

tmfinitial time

the time an event starts or a state becomes true

tmtfinal time

the time an event ends or a state becomes false

todestination

a final state of a thing or a final thing (destination) associated with the focused thing

viaintermediate place or state

an intermediate place or state of an event


Attributes

Attributes

  • Mainly describe subjectivity

  • Attributes group:

  • Describing logic characters / properties of concepts

  • Times with respect to the speaker

  • Speaker’s view on aspects of event

  • Speaker’s view of reference to concepts

  • Speaker’s view of emphasis, focus and topic

  • Speaker’s attitudes

  • Speaker’s feelings and judgments


Attribute

Attribute

  • Time with respect to speaker

    @past @present @future

  • Speaker’s view of aspect

    @begin-soon @begin-just @progress

    @end-soon @end-just @complete

    @state @repeat

  • Speaker’s view of reference

    @generic @def @indef @not @ordinal

  • Speaker’s focus

    @emphasis @entry @qfocus @theme @title @topic

  • Speaker’s attitude

    @affirmative @confirmation @exclamation @imperative @interrogative @invitation @politeness @respect @vocative


Attribute1

Attribute

  • Speaker’s viewpoint

    @ability, @ability-past, @admire, @although,

    @ask-back, @conclusion, @custom, @doubt,

    @expectation, @grant, @grant-not, @induce,

    @inevitability, @insistence, @intention,@may,

    @obligation, @obligation-not, @possibility,

    @probability, @regret, @request, @should,

    @unexpected-presumption,

    @unexpected-consequence, @will

  • Convention

    @angle_bracket, @double_parenthesis,

    @double_quotation, @parenthesis, @pl,

    @single_quotation, @square_bracket


Attribute for describing logicality

Attribute for Describing Logicality

@transitiveattached to an UW that has transitivity

@symmetricattached to an UW that has symmetricity

@identifiableattached to an UW that can identify the subject

@disjointedattached to an UW or a group of UWs to show that all element concept do not hold common instance. All connected UWs do not share instances.


Attribute for times respect to writer

Attribute for Times Respect to Writer

@pasthappened in the past

@presenthappening at present

@futurewill happen in future


Attribute for writer s view on aspect of event

Attribute for Writer’s View on Aspect of Event

@beginbeginning of an event or a state

@completefinishing/completion of a (whole) event

@continuecontinuation of an event

@customcustomary or repetitious action

@endend/termination of an event or a state

@experienceexperience

@progressan event is in progress

@repeatrepetition of an event

@statefinal state or the existence of the object on which an action has been taken


Attribute for modifying attribute on aspect

Attribute for modifying Attribute on Aspect

@justexpresses an event or a state that has just begun or ended/completed

@soonexpresses an event or a state that is about to begin or end/completed

@yetexpresses an event or a state that has not yet started or ended/completed, together with @not


Attribute for writer s view of reference on concept

Attribute for Writer’s View of Reference on Concept

@genericgeneric concept

@defalready referred

@indefnon-specific class

@notcomplement set

@ordinalordinal number


Attribute for view of emphasis focus and topic

Attribute for View of Emphasis, Focus, and Topic

@contrastcontrasted UW

@emphasisemphasized UW

@entryentry or main UW of a sentence or a scope

@qfocusfocused UW of a question

@themeinstantiates an object from a different class

@titletitle

@topictopic


Attribute for writer s attitude

Attribute for Writer’s Attitude

@affirmativeaffirmation

@confirmationconfirmation

@exclamationexclamation

@humilityin a humility manner

@imperativeimperative

@interrogativeinterrogation

@invitationinducement

@politepolite way 

@requestrequest

@respectrespectful way

@vocativevocative


Attribute for writer s felling and judgment

Attribute for Writer’s Felling and Judgment

@abilityability, capability of doing something

@get-benefitspeaker’s feeling of receiving benefits through the fact or result of something (to be) done by somebody else

@give-benefitspeaker’s feeling of giving benefits by doing something for somebody else

@conclusionlogical conclusion due to a certain condition

@consequencelogical consequence

@sufficientsufficient condition

@consentconsent feeling of the speaker about something

@dissentdissent feeling of the speaker about something

@grantto give/get consent/permission to do something

@grant-notnot to give consent to do something


Attribute for writer s felling and judgment1

Attribute for Writer’s Felling and Judgment

@althoughsomething follows against [contrary to] or beyond expectation

@discontenteddiscontented feeling of the speaker about something

@expectationexpectation of something

@wishwishful feeling, to wish something is true or has happened

@insistencestrong determination to do something

@intentionintention about something or to do something

@wantdesire to do something

@willdetermination to do something

@neednecessity to do something

@obligationobligation to do something according to (quasi-) law, contract, or …

@obligation-notobligation not to do something, forbid to do something according to (quasi-) law, contract or …


Attribute for writer s felling and judgment2

Attribute for Writer’s Felling and Judgment

@shouldto do something as a matter of course

@unavoidableunavoidable feeling of the speaker about doing something

@certaincertainty that something is true or happens

@inevitablelogical inevitability that something is true or happens

@maypractical possibility that something is true or happens

@possiblelogical possibility that something is true or happens

@probable(practical) probability that something is true or happens

@rarerare logical possibility that something is true or happens

@unrealunreality that something is true or happens


Attribute for writer s felling and judgment3

Attribute for Writer’s Felling and Judgment

@admireadmiring feeling of the speaker about something

@blameblameful feeling of the speaker about something

@contemptcontemptuous feeling of the speaker about something

@regretRegretful feeling of the speaker about something

@surprisedsurprised feeling of the speaker about something

@troublesometroublesome feeling of the speaker about the occurrence of something


Attribute for convention

Attribute for Convention

@passivepassive form

@plmore than one

@angle_bracket< > are used

@brace{ } are used

@double_parenthesis(( )) are used

@double_quote“ ” are used

@parenthesis( ) are used

@single_quote‘ ’ are used

@square_bracket[ ] are used


Universal word

Universal Word

  • <UW>::= <headword> [<constraint list>]

  • <headword>::= <character>…

  • <constraint list>::= “(“ <constraint> [ “,” <constraint>]…“)”

  • <constraint>::= <relation label> { “>” | “<” } <UW> [<constraint list>] |<relation label> { “>” | “<” } <UW> [<constraint list>] [ { “>” | “<” } <UW> [<constraint list>] ] …

  • <relation label>::= “agt” | and” | “aoj” | “obj” | “icl” | ...


Types of uw

Types of UW

  • Basic UW

  • Restricted UW

  • Extra UW (Imported UW)

  • Temporary UW


A kind of uw

A kind of UW

  • Basic UW

    Express set of every concept an English word(/phase/clause) can express

    ex) spring

  • Restricted UW

    Restrict a concept by constraint

    ex) spring(icl>tool)

    spring(icl>season)

    spring(agt>person,obj>person)


Basic category of uw

Basic Category of UW

  • UWs should belong to the following categories

    • Nominal Concept

    • Verbal Concept

    • Adjective Concept

    • Adverbial Concept


A common web language

UW

  • Nominal Concept

    swallow(icl>thing)

  • Verbal Concept

    change(agt>thing)I changed my mind.

    change(obj>thing)The weather will change. 

    remember(agt>thing)I cannot remember his name.

    remember(aoj>thing)Do you remember me?


A common web language

UW

  • Adjective Concept

    positive(aoj>thing)Are you positive about that?

    a positive fact

    only(mod<thing)the only person

  • Adverbial Concept

    weekly(icl>how)This class is held weekly.

    only(icl>how)The child only cried.


A common web language

UW

  • If the ambiguity of an UW still remains, upper category labels of UW system(hierarchy) or case relations will be used.

  • Restrict using upper category

    swallow(icl>bird) the bird

    “One swallow does not make a summer”

    swallow(icl>action)the action of swallowing

    “at one swallow”

    swallow(icl>quantity)the quantity

    “take a swallow of water”


A common web language

UW

  • Restrict using case relations

    spring(agt>thing,obj>wood)bending something

    spring(agt>thing,obj>mine))blasting something

    spring(agt>thing,obj>person,escaping (from) prison

    src>prison))

    spring(agt>thing,gol>place)jumping up

    “to spring up”

    spring(agt>thing,gol>thing)jumping on

    “to spring on”

    spring(obj>liquid)gushing out

    “to spring out”


Unlkb

UNLKB

  • Define the concept of UW

    Concepts are defined by describing the set of possible relations.

  • Provide linguistic knowledge of Concepts

  • Format:

    relation(UW1, UW2)=cc=0, 0<c<256


Uw system ontrogy

UW System(Ontrogy)

  • All Uws arelinked with each other through

    “icl” (subclass)

    “iof” (element / instance)

    “equ”

  • Property inheritance

  • Replacement by super-class concept


Knowledge

Knowledge

  • Linguistic knowledge

    semantic information of words for understanding sentences of natural languages

    semantic background of natural language sentences

  • Definitions of concepts

    knowledge of concepts in connection with other concepts

    knowledge for reasoning

  • Others

    every kind of knowledge such as encyclopedia

    knowledge for reasoning and providing information on concepts


A common web language

(3) Knowledge on concepts provided by natural language sentences, for example, encyclopaedia, etc.

UNL Expressions

(2) Definition of concepts

(1) Linguistic knowledge

UNLKB

Links between concepts and definition of the concepts that can specify the concepts

Links between concepts and knowledge on the concepts


A common web language

{unl}

...

{/unl}

UNL Documents

of Definitions

{unl}

...

{/unl}

UNLKB

{unl}

...

{/unl}

equ

cnt

UNL Documents

of Encyclopedia

{unl}

...

{/unl}

{unl}

...

{/unl}

{unl}

...

{/unl}

{unl}

...

{/unl}

{unl}

...

{/unl}

{unl}

...

{/unl}


Unl knowledge system

uw(aoj>thing)

uw(mod<thing)

be

do

occur

UNL Knowledge System

uw

adjective concept

adverbial concept

nominal concept

verbal concept

how

thing

inference

UNL

artificial inteligence

UNL

clarify

realize

usage

computer system

unknown

computer

based

known

human inteligence

scientifically

matter

theoryrule

matter

learninginferencerecognitionjudgement

UNL Encyclopedia

some


A common web language

E

D

I

T

O

R

U

N

L

E

X

P

L

O

R

E

R

U

N

L

UNL Verifier

UNL

Document

Base

UNL

KCIC

UNL Encyclopedia

Language Server

EnConverter

EnCo Rules

UNL-Language

Dictionary

Concept

Definitions

(UNL)

UNL

Library

DeCo Rules

UNL KB

DeConverter

UNL–based

application

UW

Dictionary

UNL Proxy

UW Gate


A common web language

Annotated

Natural

Language

Texts

Annotation Editor

Universal Parser

UNL Verifier

UNL

Document

Natural

Language

Texts

EnConverter

Grammatical

Rules

Word

Dictionary

Co-

occurrence

Dictionary

UNL

KB

UW

Dictionary

Web Server

HTML+XML

Natural

Language

Texts

UW Gate

UNL

Document

DeConverter


Cdl model syntax

CDL Model & Syntax

Provide basic data structure common to all CDL.*

Basic data structure

“{“ “}” : Concept defined in the CDL

“<“ “>”: Concept which is imagined by the symbol.

{ Instance_LabelConcept_LabelAttribute_Value_Pair… :

Concept…

Arch… }

Arch:= [node1 node2 node3]


Cdl to cdl rdf

CDL to CDL/RDF

Compound Concept

#S s

<cdl:Compound rdf:ID= "s" >

#A a

#C c

#B b

cdl:binrel

d

a

c

b

{#S s :

{#A a: }

{#B b: }

{#C c: }

[#A #B #C]

}

<cdl:Compound rdf:ID= "s" > <cdl:binrel> <cdl:subject rdf:about= "a"> .

<cdl:Compound rdf:ID= "s" > <cdl:concept>

a b c.


Natural language representation in cdl nl

Natural Language Representation in CDL.nl

Ex.1 “I received a report that a computer was purchased yesterday.”

{#A event:

{#B event:

<#11:yesterday>

<#12:computer>

<#13:purchased>

[#13 tim #11] [#13 obj #12]

}

<#2:report>

<#3:received>

<#4:I>

[#2 cnt #B][#3 obj #2][#3 rec #4]

}


Cdl nl representation in rdf

CDL.Nl Representation in RDF

<cdl:Compound rdf:about= “event " rdf:ID= “#A" > <cdl:binrel> <uw:received rdf:ID= “#3" > .

<uw:received rdf:ID= “#3" > <cdl:obj> <uw:report rdf:ID= “#2" > .

<uw:received rdf:ID= “#3" > <cdl:rec> <uw:I rdf:ID= “#4" > .

<cdl:Compound rdf:about= “event " rdf:ID= “#A" > <cdl:binrel> < uw:report rdf:ID= “#2" > .

<uw:report rdf:ID= “#2" > <cdl:cnt> < cdl:Compound rdf:ID= “#B" > .

< cdl:Compound rdf:about= “event " rdf:ID= “#B" > <cdl:binrel> <uw:purchased rdf:ID= “#13" > .

<uw:purchased rdf:ID= “#13" > <cdl:tim> <uw:yesterday rdf:ID= “#11" > .

<uw:purchased rdf:ID= “#13" > <cdl:obj> <uw:computer rdf:ID= “#12" > .


Further information on cdl unl

Further Information on CDL, UNL

CDL:www.instsec.org/tr

UNL:www.undl.org


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