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A Common Web Language. Hiroshi Uchida ISeC (Institute of Semantic Computing). Semantic Computing, CDL and UNL. [+core_ontology]. CDL:=Concept Description Language. UNL. R+A. UW. icl. met. CDL.nl. agt. think. Computer. Natural Language. Common Web Language. met. OWL RDF/XML.

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A common web language

A Common Web Language

Hiroshi Uchida

ISeC

(Institute of Semantic Computing)


Semantic computing cdl and unl
Semantic Computing, CDL and UNL

[+core_ontology]

CDL:=Concept Description Language

UNL

R+A

UW

icl

met

CDL.nl

agt

think

Computer

Natural Language

Common Web Language

met

OWL RDF/XML

agt

person

think


Unl a language for computers
UNLa language for computers

  • Artificial language (Semantic Network with Hyper Node)

    A node represents a concept

    An arc represents a relation

    A node can be annotated by attributes

  • Consists of;

    Universal Words: vocabulary

    Relations, Attributes: syntax

    Knowledge Base: semantics


Long ago, in the city of Babylon, the people begun to build a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

long ago

people

huge

tim agt agt aoj

tower

begun

build

obj obj

plc obj obj

city

reach

seemed

obj

mod

gol

Babylon

heaven


Long ago, in the city of Babylon, the people begun to build a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

{unl}

tim(begin(agt>thing,obj>thing).@entry.@past,long ago(icl>ago))

mod(city(icl>region).@def,Babylon(icl>city))

plc(begin(agt>thing,obj>thing).@entry.@past,city(icl>region).@def)

agt(begin(agt>thing,obj>thing).@entry.@past,people(icl>person).@def)

obj(begin(agt>thing,obj>thing).@entry.@past,build(agt>thing,obj>thing)@past)

agt(build(agt>thing,obj>thing),people(icl>person).@def)

obj(build(agt>thing,obj>thing)),tower(icl>building))

aoj(huge(icl>big),tower(icl>building))

aoj(seem(aoj>thing).@past,tower(icl>building))

obj(seem(aoj>thing).@past,reach(icl>come).@begin.@soon)

obj(reach(icl>come).@begin.@soon,tower(icl>building))

gol(reach(icl>come).@begin.@soon,heaven(icl>region).@def.@pl)

{/unl}


History of unl
History of UNL a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

  • Started in 1996, as an initiative of the UNU/IAS in Japan

  • R&D

    UNU/IAS and other 19 research institutes

    Development on 18 languages

    Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Greek, German, Hindi, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Latvian, Mongol, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Thai, Swahili

  • Transfer to the UNDL Foundation in 2001


Relation
Relation a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

  • Constitutes syntax of the UNL

  • Expresses objectivity together with UWs

  • Expresses how concepts(UW) constitutes a sentence related each other

  • 38 relations

    agtand aoj bas cag cao cnt cob con coo dur fmt frm ins man met mod nam obj or per plc plf plt pof pos ptn pur qua rsn scn seq src tim tmf tmt to via


Relation1
Relation a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

agt agent

a thing in focus that initiates an action

and conjunction

a partner to have conjunctive relation

aoj thing with attribute

a thing that is in a state or has an attribute

bas basis

a thing used as the basis (standard) of comparison

ben beneficiary

an indirectly related beneficiary or victim of an event or state

cag co-agent

a thing not in focus that initiates an implicit event that is done in parallel

cao co-thing with attribute

a thing not in focus that is in a parallel state


Relation2
Relation a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

cnt content

the content of a concept

icl included/a kind of

an upper concept or a more general concept

Ins instrument

a instrument to carry out an event

Int intersection

a partner to take an intersection

Iof an instance of

a class concept that an instance belongs to

man manner

a way to carry out an event or characteristics of a state

met method

means to carry out an event

mod modification

a thing that restricts a focused thing

nam name

a name of a thing


Relation3
Relation a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

obj affected thing

a thing in focus that is directly effected by an event or state

opl affected place

a place in focus affected by an event

or disjunction

a partner to have disjunctive relation

per proportion, rate of distribution

a basis or unit of proportion, rate of distribution

plc place

the place where an event occurs, or a state is true, or a thing exists

plf initial place

the place where an event begins or a state becomes true

plt final place

the place where an event ends or a state becomes false

pof part-of

a concept of which a focused thing is a part


Relation4
Relation a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

pos possessor

a possessor of a thing

ptn partner

an indispensable non-focused initiator of an action

pur purpose or objective

the purpose or objective of an agent of an event or the purpose of a thing which exists

qua quantity

quantity of a thing or unit

rsn reason

a reason why an event or a state happens

scn scene

a scene where an event occurs, or state is true, or a thing exists

seq sequence

a prior event or state of a focused event or state

Src source/initial state

the initial state of an object or thing initially associated with the object of an event


Relation5
Relation a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

tim Time

the time an event occurs or a state is true

tmf initial time

the time an event starts or a state becomes true

tmt final time

the time an event ends or a state becomes false

to destination

a final state of a thing or a final thing (destination) associated with the focused thing

via intermediate place or state

an intermediate place or state of an event


Attributes
Attributes a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

  • Mainly describe subjectivity

  • Attributes group:

  • Describing logic characters / properties of concepts

  • Times with respect to the speaker

  • Speaker’s view on aspects of event

  • Speaker’s view of reference to concepts

  • Speaker’s view of emphasis, focus and topic

  • Speaker’s attitudes

  • Speaker’s feelings and judgments


Attribute
Attribute a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

  • Time with respect to speaker

    @past @present @future

  • Speaker’s view of aspect

    @begin-soon @begin-just @progress

    @end-soon @end-just @complete

    @state @repeat

  • Speaker’s view of reference

    @generic @def @indef @not @ordinal

  • Speaker’s focus

    @emphasis @entry @qfocus @theme @title @topic

  • Speaker’s attitude

    @affirmative @confirmation @exclamation @imperative @interrogative @invitation @politeness @respect @vocative


Attribute1
Attribute a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

  • Speaker’s viewpoint

    @ability, @ability-past, @admire, @although,

    @ask-back, @conclusion, @custom, @doubt,

    @expectation, @grant, @grant-not, @induce,

    @inevitability, @insistence, @intention,@may,

    @obligation, @obligation-not, @possibility,

    @probability, @regret, @request, @should,

    @unexpected-presumption,

    @unexpected-consequence, @will

  • Convention

    @angle_bracket, @double_parenthesis,

    @double_quotation, @parenthesis, @pl,

    @single_quotation, @square_bracket


Attribute for describing logicality
Attribute for Describing Logicality a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

@transitive attached to an UW that has transitivity

@symmetric attached to an UW that has symmetricity

@identifiable attached to an UW that can identify the subject

@disjointed attached to an UW or a group of UWs to show that all element concept do not hold common instance. All connected UWs do not share instances.


Attribute for times respect to writer
Attribute for Times Respect to Writer a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

@pasthappened in the past

@presenthappening at present

@futurewill happen in future


Attribute for writer s view on aspect of event
Attribute for Writer’s View on Aspect of Event a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

@beginbeginning of an event or a state

@completefinishing/completion of a (whole) event

@continue continuation of an event

@custom customary or repetitious action

@end end/termination of an event or a state

@experience experience

@progress an event is in progress

@repeat repetition of an event

@state final state or the existence of the object on which an action has been taken


Attribute for modifying attribute on aspect
Attribute for modifying Attribute on Aspect a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

@just expresses an event or a state that has just begun or ended/completed

@soon expresses an event or a state that is about to begin or end/completed

@yet expresses an event or a state that has not yet started or ended/completed, together with @not


Attribute for writer s view of reference on concept
Attribute for Writer’s View of Reference on Concept a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

@generic generic concept

@def already referred

@indef non-specific class

@not complement set

@ordinal ordinal number


Attribute for view of emphasis focus and topic
Attribute for View of Emphasis, Focus, and Topic a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

@contrast contrasted UW

@emphasis emphasized UW

@entry entry or main UW of a sentence or a scope

@qfocus focused UW of a question

@theme instantiates an object from a different class

@title title

@topic topic


Attribute for writer s attitude
Attribute for Writer’s Attitude a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

@affirmative affirmation

@confirmation confirmation

@exclamation exclamation

@humility in a humility manner

@imperative imperative

@interrogative interrogation

@invitation inducement

@polite polite way 

@request request

@respect respectful way

@vocative vocative


Attribute for writer s felling and judgment
Attribute for Writer’s Felling and Judgment a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

@ability ability, capability of doing something

@get-benefit speaker’s feeling of receiving benefits through the fact or result of something (to be) done by somebody else

@give-benefit speaker’s feeling of giving benefits by doing something for somebody else

@conclusion logical conclusion due to a certain condition

@consequence logical consequence

@sufficient sufficient condition

@consent consent feeling of the speaker about something

@dissent dissent feeling of the speaker about something

@grant to give/get consent/permission to do something

@grant-not not to give consent to do something


Attribute for writer s felling and judgment1
Attribute for Writer’s Felling and Judgment a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

@although something follows against [contrary to] or beyond expectation

@discontented discontented feeling of the speaker about something

@expectation expectation of something

@wish wishful feeling, to wish something is true or has happened

@insistence strong determination to do something

@intention intention about something or to do something

@want desire to do something

@will determination to do something

@need necessity to do something

@obligation obligation to do something according to (quasi-) law, contract, or …

@obligation-not obligation not to do something, forbid to do something according to (quasi-) law, contract or …


Attribute for writer s felling and judgment2
Attribute for Writer’s Felling and Judgment a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

@should to do something as a matter of course

@unavoidable unavoidable feeling of the speaker about doing something

@certain certainty that something is true or happens

@inevitable logical inevitability that something is true or happens

@may practical possibility that something is true or happens

@possible logical possibility that something is true or happens

@probable (practical) probability that something is true or happens

@rare rare logical possibility that something is true or happens

@unreal unreality that something is true or happens


Attribute for writer s felling and judgment3
Attribute for Writer’s Felling and Judgment a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

@admire admiring feeling of the speaker about something

@blame blameful feeling of the speaker about something

@contempt contemptuous feeling of the speaker about something

@regret Regretful feeling of the speaker about something

@surprised surprised feeling of the speaker about something

@troublesome troublesome feeling of the speaker about the occurrence of something


Attribute for convention
Attribute for Convention a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

@passive passive form

@pl more than one

@angle_bracket < > are used

@brace { } are used

@double_parenthesis (( )) are used

@double_quote “ ” are used

@parenthesis ( ) are used

@single_quote ‘ ’ are used

@square_bracket [ ] are used


Universal word
Universal Word a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

  • <UW>::= <headword> [<constraint list>]

  • <headword>::= <character>…

  • <constraint list>::= “(“ <constraint> [ “,” <constraint>]…“)”

  • <constraint>::= <relation label> { “>” | “<” } <UW> [<constraint list>] |<relation label> { “>” | “<” } <UW> [<constraint list>] [ { “>” | “<” } <UW> [<constraint list>] ] …

  • <relation label>::= “agt” | and” | “aoj” | “obj” | “icl” | ...


Types of uw
Types of UW a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

  • Basic UW

  • Restricted UW

  • Extra UW (Imported UW)

  • Temporary UW


A kind of uw
A kind of UW a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

  • Basic UW

    Express set of every concept an English word(/phase/clause) can express

    ex) spring

  • Restricted UW

    Restrict a concept by constraint

    ex) spring(icl>tool)

    spring(icl>season)

    spring(agt>person,obj>person)


Basic category of uw
Basic Category of UW a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

  • UWs should belong to the following categories

    • Nominal Concept

    • Verbal Concept

    • Adjective Concept

    • Adverbial Concept


UW a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

  • Nominal Concept

    swallow(icl>thing)

  • Verbal Concept

    change(agt>thing) I changed my mind.

    change(obj>thing) The weather will change. 

    remember(agt>thing) I cannot remember his name.

    remember(aoj>thing) Do you remember me?


UW a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

  • Adjective Concept

    positive(aoj>thing) Are you positive about that?

    a positive fact

    only(mod<thing) the only person

  • Adverbial Concept

    weekly(icl>how) This class is held weekly.

    only(icl>how) The child only cried.


UW a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

  • If the ambiguity of an UW still remains, upper category labels of UW system(hierarchy) or case relations will be used.

  • Restrict using upper category

    swallow(icl>bird) the bird

    “One swallow does not make a summer”

    swallow(icl>action) the action of swallowing

    “at one swallow”

    swallow(icl>quantity) the quantity

    “take a swallow of water”


UW a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

  • Restrict using case relations

    spring(agt>thing,obj>wood) bending something

    spring(agt>thing,obj>mine)) blasting something

    spring(agt>thing,obj>person, escaping (from) prison

    src>prison))

    spring(agt>thing,gol>place) jumping up

    “to spring up”

    spring(agt>thing,gol>thing) jumping on

    “to spring on”

    spring(obj>liquid) gushing out

    “to spring out”


Unlkb
UNLKB a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

  • Define the concept of UW

    Concepts are defined by describing the set of possible relations.

  • Provide linguistic knowledge of Concepts

  • Format:

    relation(UW1, UW2)=c c=0, 0<c<256


Uw system ontrogy
UW System a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.(Ontrogy)

  • All Uws arelinked with each other through

    “icl” (subclass)

    “iof” (element / instance)

    “equ”

  • Property inheritance

  • Replacement by super-class concept


Knowledge
Knowledge a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

  • Linguistic knowledge

    semantic information of words for understanding sentences of natural languages

    semantic background of natural language sentences

  • Definitions of concepts

    knowledge of concepts in connection with other concepts

    knowledge for reasoning

  • Others

    every kind of knowledge such as encyclopedia

    knowledge for reasoning and providing information on concepts


(3) a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.Knowledge on concepts provided by natural language sentences, for example, encyclopaedia, etc.

UNL Expressions

(2) Definition of concepts

(1) Linguistic knowledge

UNLKB

Links between concepts and definition of the concepts that can specify the concepts

Links between concepts and knowledge on the concepts


{unl} a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

...

{/unl}

UNL Documents

of Definitions

{unl}

...

{/unl}

UNLKB

{unl}

...

{/unl}

equ

cnt

UNL Documents

of Encyclopedia

{unl}

...

{/unl}

{unl}

...

{/unl}

{unl}

...

{/unl}

{unl}

...

{/unl}

{unl}

...

{/unl}

{unl}

...

{/unl}


Unl knowledge system

uw(aoj>thing) a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

uw(mod<thing)

be

do

occur

UNL Knowledge System

uw

adjective concept

adverbial concept

nominal concept

verbal concept

how

thing

inference

UNL

artificial inteligence

UNL

clarify

realize

usage

computer system

unknown

computer

based

known

human inteligence

scientifically

matter

theoryrule

matter

learninginferencerecognitionjudgement

UNL Encyclopedia

some


E a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

D

I

T

O

R

U

N

L

E

X

P

L

O

R

E

R

U

N

L

UNL Verifier

UNL

Document

Base

UNL

KCIC

UNL Encyclopedia

Language Server

EnConverter

EnCo Rules

UNL-Language

Dictionary

Concept

Definitions

(UNL)

UNL

Library

DeCo Rules

UNL KB

DeConverter

UNL–based

application

UW

Dictionary

UNL Proxy

UW Gate


Annotated a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

Natural

Language

Texts

Annotation Editor

Universal Parser

UNL Verifier

UNL

Document

Natural

Language

Texts

EnConverter

Grammatical

Rules

Word

Dictionary

Co-

occurrence

Dictionary

UNL

KB

UW

Dictionary

Web Server

HTML+XML

Natural

Language

Texts

UW Gate

UNL

Document

DeConverter


Cdl model syntax
CDL Model & Syntax a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

Provide basic data structure common to all CDL.*

Basic data structure

“{“ “}” : Concept defined in the CDL

“<“ “>”: Concept which is imagined by the symbol.

{ Instance_LabelConcept_LabelAttribute_Value_Pair… :

Concept…

Arch… }

Arch:= [node1 node2 node3]


Cdl to cdl rdf
CDL to CDL/RDF a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

Compound Concept

#S s

<cdl:Compound rdf:ID= "s" >

#A a

#C c

#B b

cdl:binrel

d

a

c

b

{#S s :

{#A a: }

{#B b: }

{#C c: }

[#A #B #C]

}

<cdl:Compound rdf:ID= "s" > <cdl:binrel> <cdl:subject rdf:about= "a"> .

<cdl:Compound rdf:ID= "s" > <cdl:concept>

a b c.


Natural language representation in cdl nl
Natural Language Representation in CDL.nl a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

Ex.1 “I received a report that a computer was purchased yesterday.”

{#A event:

{#B event:

<#11:yesterday>

<#12:computer>

<#13:purchased>

[#13 tim #11] [#13 obj #12]

}

<#2:report>

<#3:received>

<#4:I>

[#2 cnt #B][#3 obj #2][#3 rec #4]

}


Cdl nl representation in rdf
CDL.Nl Representation in RDF a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

<cdl:Compound rdf:about= “event " rdf:ID= “#A" > <cdl:binrel> <uw:received rdf:ID= “#3" > .

<uw:received rdf:ID= “#3" > <cdl:obj> <uw:report rdf:ID= “#2" > .

<uw:received rdf:ID= “#3" > <cdl:rec> <uw:I rdf:ID= “#4" > .

<cdl:Compound rdf:about= “event " rdf:ID= “#A" > <cdl:binrel> < uw:report rdf:ID= “#2" > .

<uw:report rdf:ID= “#2" > <cdl:cnt> < cdl:Compound rdf:ID= “#B" > .

< cdl:Compound rdf:about= “event " rdf:ID= “#B" > <cdl:binrel> <uw:purchased rdf:ID= “#13" > .

<uw:purchased rdf:ID= “#13" > <cdl:tim> <uw:yesterday rdf:ID= “#11" > .

<uw:purchased rdf:ID= “#13" > <cdl:obj> <uw:computer rdf:ID= “#12" > .


Further information on cdl unl
Further Information on CDL, UNL a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

CDL: www.instsec.org/tr

UNL: www.undl.org


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