a common web language
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
A Common Web Language

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 49

A Common Web Language - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 182 Views
  • Uploaded on

A Common Web Language. Hiroshi Uchida ISeC (Institute of Semantic Computing). Semantic Computing, CDL and UNL. [+core_ontology]. CDL:=Concept Description Language. UNL. R+A. UW. icl. met. CDL.nl. agt. think. Computer. Natural Language. Common Web Language. met. OWL RDF/XML.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'A Common Web Language' - dakota


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
a common web language

A Common Web Language

Hiroshi Uchida

ISeC

(Institute of Semantic Computing)

semantic computing cdl and unl
Semantic Computing, CDL and UNL

[+core_ontology]

CDL:=Concept Description Language

UNL

R+A

UW

icl

met

CDL.nl

agt

think

Computer

Natural Language

Common Web Language

met

OWL RDF/XML

agt

person

think

unl a language for computers
UNLa language for computers
  • Artificial language (Semantic Network with Hyper Node)

A node represents a concept

An arc represents a relation

A node can be annotated by attributes

  • Consists of;

Universal Words: vocabulary

Relations, Attributes: syntax

Knowledge Base: semantics

slide4
Long ago, in the city of Babylon, the people begun to build a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

long ago

people

huge

tim agt agt aoj

tower

begun

build

obj obj

plc obj obj

city

reach

seemed

obj

mod

gol

Babylon

heaven

slide5
Long ago, in the city of Babylon, the people begun to build a huge tower, which seemed about to reach the heavens.

{unl}

tim(begin(agt>thing,obj>thing)[email protected]@past,long ago(icl>ago))

mod(city(icl>region)[email protected],Babylon(icl>city))

plc(begin(agt>thing,obj>thing)[email protected]@past,city(icl>region)[email protected])

agt(begin(agt>thing,obj>thing)[email protected]@past,people(icl>person)[email protected])

obj(begin(agt>thing,obj>thing)[email protected]@past,build(agt>thing,obj>thing)@past)

agt(build(agt>thing,obj>thing),people(icl>person)[email protected])

obj(build(agt>thing,obj>thing)),tower(icl>building))

aoj(huge(icl>big),tower(icl>building))

aoj(seem(aoj>thing)[email protected],tower(icl>building))

obj(seem(aoj>thing)[email protected],reach(icl>come)[email protected]@soon)

obj(reach(icl>come)[email protected]@soon,tower(icl>building))

gol(reach(icl>come)[email protected]@soon,heaven(icl>region)[email protected]@pl)

{/unl}

history of unl
History of UNL
  • Started in 1996, as an initiative of the UNU/IAS in Japan
  • R&D

UNU/IAS and other 19 research institutes

Development on 18 languages

Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Greek, German, Hindi, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Latvian, Mongol, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Thai, Swahili

  • Transfer to the UNDL Foundation in 2001
relation
Relation
  • Constitutes syntax of the UNL
  • Expresses objectivity together with UWs
  • Expresses how concepts(UW) constitutes a sentence related each other
  • 38 relations

agtand aoj bas cag cao cnt cob con coo dur fmt frm ins man met mod nam obj or per plc plf plt pof pos ptn pur qua rsn scn seq src tim tmf tmt to via

relation1
Relation

agt agent

a thing in focus that initiates an action

and conjunction

a partner to have conjunctive relation

aoj thing with attribute

a thing that is in a state or has an attribute

bas basis

a thing used as the basis (standard) of comparison

ben beneficiary

an indirectly related beneficiary or victim of an event or state

cag co-agent

a thing not in focus that initiates an implicit event that is done in parallel

cao co-thing with attribute

a thing not in focus that is in a parallel state

relation2
Relation

cnt content

the content of a concept

icl included/a kind of

an upper concept or a more general concept

Ins instrument

a instrument to carry out an event

Int intersection

a partner to take an intersection

Iof an instance of

a class concept that an instance belongs to

man manner

a way to carry out an event or characteristics of a state

met method

means to carry out an event

mod modification

a thing that restricts a focused thing

nam name

a name of a thing

relation3
Relation

obj affected thing

a thing in focus that is directly effected by an event or state

opl affected place

a place in focus affected by an event

or disjunction

a partner to have disjunctive relation

per proportion, rate of distribution

a basis or unit of proportion, rate of distribution

plc place

the place where an event occurs, or a state is true, or a thing exists

plf initial place

the place where an event begins or a state becomes true

plt final place

the place where an event ends or a state becomes false

pof part-of

a concept of which a focused thing is a part

relation4
Relation

pos possessor

a possessor of a thing

ptn partner

an indispensable non-focused initiator of an action

pur purpose or objective

the purpose or objective of an agent of an event or the purpose of a thing which exists

qua quantity

quantity of a thing or unit

rsn reason

a reason why an event or a state happens

scn scene

a scene where an event occurs, or state is true, or a thing exists

seq sequence

a prior event or state of a focused event or state

Src source/initial state

the initial state of an object or thing initially associated with the object of an event

relation5
Relation

tim Time

the time an event occurs or a state is true

tmf initial time

the time an event starts or a state becomes true

tmt final time

the time an event ends or a state becomes false

to destination

a final state of a thing or a final thing (destination) associated with the focused thing

via intermediate place or state

an intermediate place or state of an event

attributes
Attributes
  • Mainly describe subjectivity
  • Attributes group:
  • Describing logic characters / properties of concepts
  • Times with respect to the speaker
  • Speaker’s view on aspects of event
  • Speaker’s view of reference to concepts
  • Speaker’s view of emphasis, focus and topic
  • Speaker’s attitudes
  • Speaker’s feelings and judgments
attribute
Attribute
  • Time with respect to speaker

@past @present @future

  • Speaker’s view of aspect

@begin-soon @begin-just @progress

@end-soon @end-just @complete

@state @repeat

  • Speaker’s view of reference

@generic @def @indef @not @ordinal

  • Speaker’s focus

@emphasis @entry @qfocus @theme @title @topic

  • Speaker’s attitude

@affirmative @confirmation @exclamation @imperative @interrogative @invitation @politeness @respect @vocative

attribute1
Attribute
  • Speaker’s viewpoint

@ability, @ability-past, @admire, @although,

@ask-back, @conclusion, @custom, @doubt,

@expectation, @grant, @grant-not, @induce,

@inevitability, @insistence, @intention,@may,

@obligation, @obligation-not, @possibility,

@probability, @regret, @request, @should,

@unexpected-presumption,

@unexpected-consequence, @will

  • Convention

@angle_bracket, @double_parenthesis,

@double_quotation, @parenthesis, @pl,

@single_quotation, @square_bracket

attribute for describing logicality
Attribute for Describing Logicality

@transitive attached to an UW that has transitivity

@symmetric attached to an UW that has symmetricity

@identifiable attached to an UW that can identify the subject

@disjointed attached to an UW or a group of UWs to show that all element concept do not hold common instance. All connected UWs do not share instances.

attribute for times respect to writer
Attribute for Times Respect to Writer

@pasthappened in the past

@presenthappening at present

@futurewill happen in future

attribute for writer s view on aspect of event
Attribute for Writer’s View on Aspect of Event

@beginbeginning of an event or a state

@completefinishing/completion of a (whole) event

@continue continuation of an event

@custom customary or repetitious action

@end end/termination of an event or a state

@experience experience

@progress an event is in progress

@repeat repetition of an event

@state final state or the existence of the object on which an action has been taken

attribute for modifying attribute on aspect
Attribute for modifying Attribute on Aspect

@just expresses an event or a state that has just begun or ended/completed

@soon expresses an event or a state that is about to begin or end/completed

@yet expresses an event or a state that has not yet started or ended/completed, together with @not

attribute for writer s view of reference on concept
Attribute for Writer’s View of Reference on Concept

@generic generic concept

@def already referred

@indef non-specific class

@not complement set

@ordinal ordinal number

attribute for view of emphasis focus and topic
Attribute for View of Emphasis, Focus, and Topic

@contrast contrasted UW

@emphasis emphasized UW

@entry entry or main UW of a sentence or a scope

@qfocus focused UW of a question

@theme instantiates an object from a different class

@title title

@topic topic

attribute for writer s attitude
Attribute for Writer’s Attitude

@affirmative affirmation

@confirmation confirmation

@exclamation exclamation

@humility in a humility manner

@imperative imperative

@interrogative interrogation

@invitation inducement

@polite polite way 

@request request

@respect respectful way

@vocative vocative

attribute for writer s felling and judgment
Attribute for Writer’s Felling and Judgment

@ability ability, capability of doing something

@get-benefit speaker’s feeling of receiving benefits through the fact or result of something (to be) done by somebody else

@give-benefit speaker’s feeling of giving benefits by doing something for somebody else

@conclusion logical conclusion due to a certain condition

@consequence logical consequence

@sufficient sufficient condition

@consent consent feeling of the speaker about something

@dissent dissent feeling of the speaker about something

@grant to give/get consent/permission to do something

@grant-not not to give consent to do something

attribute for writer s felling and judgment1
Attribute for Writer’s Felling and Judgment

@although something follows against [contrary to] or beyond expectation

@discontented discontented feeling of the speaker about something

@expectation expectation of something

@wish wishful feeling, to wish something is true or has happened

@insistence strong determination to do something

@intention intention about something or to do something

@want desire to do something

@will determination to do something

@need necessity to do something

@obligation obligation to do something according to (quasi-) law, contract, or …

@obligation-not obligation not to do something, forbid to do something according to (quasi-) law, contract or …

attribute for writer s felling and judgment2
Attribute for Writer’s Felling and Judgment

@should to do something as a matter of course

@unavoidable unavoidable feeling of the speaker about doing something

@certain certainty that something is true or happens

@inevitable logical inevitability that something is true or happens

@may practical possibility that something is true or happens

@possible logical possibility that something is true or happens

@probable (practical) probability that something is true or happens

@rare rare logical possibility that something is true or happens

@unreal unreality that something is true or happens

attribute for writer s felling and judgment3
Attribute for Writer’s Felling and Judgment

@admire admiring feeling of the speaker about something

@blame blameful feeling of the speaker about something

@contempt contemptuous feeling of the speaker about something

@regret Regretful feeling of the speaker about something

@surprised surprised feeling of the speaker about something

@troublesome troublesome feeling of the speaker about the occurrence of something

attribute for convention
Attribute for Convention

@passive passive form

@pl more than one

@angle_bracket < > are used

@brace { } are used

@double_parenthesis (( )) are used

@double_quote “ ” are used

@parenthesis ( ) are used

@single_quote ‘ ’ are used

@square_bracket [ ] are used

universal word
Universal Word
  • <UW>::= <headword> [<constraint list>]
  • <headword>::= <character>…
  • <constraint list>::= “(“ <constraint> [ “,” <constraint>]…“)”
  • <constraint>::= <relation label> { “>” | “<” } <UW> [<constraint list>] |<relation label> { “>” | “<” } <UW> [<constraint list>] [ { “>” | “<” } <UW> [<constraint list>] ] …
  • <relation label>::= “agt” | and” | “aoj” | “obj” | “icl” | ...
types of uw
Types of UW
  • Basic UW
  • Restricted UW
  • Extra UW (Imported UW)
  • Temporary UW
a kind of uw
A kind of UW
  • Basic UW

Express set of every concept an English word(/phase/clause) can express

ex) spring

  • Restricted UW

Restrict a concept by constraint

ex) spring(icl>tool)

spring(icl>season)

spring(agt>person,obj>person)

basic category of uw
Basic Category of UW
  • UWs should belong to the following categories
      • Nominal Concept
      • Verbal Concept
      • Adjective Concept
      • Adverbial Concept
slide32
UW
  • Nominal Concept

swallow(icl>thing)

  • Verbal Concept

change(agt>thing) I changed my mind.

change(obj>thing) The weather will change. 

remember(agt>thing) I cannot remember his name.

remember(aoj>thing) Do you remember me?

slide33
UW
  • Adjective Concept

positive(aoj>thing) Are you positive about that?

a positive fact

only(mod<thing) the only person

  • Adverbial Concept

weekly(icl>how) This class is held weekly.

only(icl>how) The child only cried.

slide34
UW
  • If the ambiguity of an UW still remains, upper category labels of UW system(hierarchy) or case relations will be used.
  • Restrict using upper category

swallow(icl>bird) the bird

“One swallow does not make a summer”

swallow(icl>action) the action of swallowing

“at one swallow”

swallow(icl>quantity) the quantity

“take a swallow of water”

slide35
UW
  • Restrict using case relations

spring(agt>thing,obj>wood) bending something

spring(agt>thing,obj>mine)) blasting something

spring(agt>thing,obj>person, escaping (from) prison

src>prison))

spring(agt>thing,gol>place) jumping up

“to spring up”

spring(agt>thing,gol>thing) jumping on

“to spring on”

spring(obj>liquid) gushing out

“to spring out”

unlkb
UNLKB
  • Define the concept of UW

Concepts are defined by describing the set of possible relations.

  • Provide linguistic knowledge of Concepts
  • Format:

relation(UW1, UW2)=c c=0, 0<c<256

uw system ontrogy
UW System(Ontrogy)
  • All Uws arelinked with each other through

“icl” (subclass)

“iof” (element / instance)

“equ”

  • Property inheritance
  • Replacement by super-class concept
knowledge
Knowledge
  • Linguistic knowledge

semantic information of words for understanding sentences of natural languages

semantic background of natural language sentences

  • Definitions of concepts

knowledge of concepts in connection with other concepts

knowledge for reasoning

  • Others

every kind of knowledge such as encyclopedia

knowledge for reasoning and providing information on concepts

slide39

(3) Knowledge on concepts provided by natural language sentences, for example, encyclopaedia, etc.

UNL Expressions

(2) Definition of concepts

(1) Linguistic knowledge

UNLKB

Links between concepts and definition of the concepts that can specify the concepts

Links between concepts and knowledge on the concepts

slide40

{unl}

...

{/unl}

UNL Documents

of Definitions

{unl}

...

{/unl}

UNLKB

{unl}

...

{/unl}

equ

cnt

UNL Documents

of Encyclopedia

{unl}

...

{/unl}

{unl}

...

{/unl}

{unl}

...

{/unl}

{unl}

...

{/unl}

{unl}

...

{/unl}

{unl}

...

{/unl}

unl knowledge system

uw(aoj>thing)

uw(mod<thing)

be

do

occur

UNL Knowledge System

uw

adjective concept

adverbial concept

nominal concept

verbal concept

how

thing

inference

UNL

artificial inteligence

UNL

clarify

realize

usage

computer system

unknown

computer

based

known

human inteligence

scientifically

matter

theoryrule

matter

learninginferencerecognitionjudgement

UNL Encyclopedia

some

slide42

E

D

I

T

O

R

U

N

L

E

X

P

L

O

R

E

R

U

N

L

UNL Verifier

UNL

Document

Base

UNL

KCIC

UNL Encyclopedia

Language Server

EnConverter

EnCo Rules

UNL-Language

Dictionary

Concept

Definitions

(UNL)

UNL

Library

DeCo Rules

UNL KB

DeConverter

UNL–based

application

UW

Dictionary

UNL Proxy

UW Gate

slide43

Annotated

Natural

Language

Texts

Annotation Editor

Universal Parser

UNL Verifier

UNL

Document

Natural

Language

Texts

EnConverter

Grammatical

Rules

Word

Dictionary

Co-

occurrence

Dictionary

UNL

KB

UW

Dictionary

Web Server

HTML+XML

Natural

Language

Texts

UW Gate

UNL

Document

DeConverter

cdl model syntax
CDL Model & Syntax

Provide basic data structure common to all CDL.*

Basic data structure

“{“ “}” : Concept defined in the CDL

“<“ “>”: Concept which is imagined by the symbol.

{ Instance_LabelConcept_LabelAttribute_Value_Pair… :

Concept…

Arch… }

Arch:= [node1 node2 node3]

cdl to cdl rdf
CDL to CDL/RDF

Compound Concept

#S s

<cdl:Compound rdf:ID= "s" >

#A a

#C c

#B b

cdl:binrel

d

a

c

b

{#S s :

{#A a: }

{#B b: }

{#C c: }

[#A #B #C]

}

<cdl:Compound rdf:ID= "s" > <cdl:binrel> <cdl:subject rdf:about= "a"> .

<cdl:Compound rdf:ID= "s" > <cdl:concept>

a b c.

natural language representation in cdl nl
Natural Language Representation in CDL.nl

Ex.1 “I received a report that a computer was purchased yesterday.”

{#A event:

{#B event:

<#11:yesterday>

<#12:computer>

<#13:purchased>

[#13 tim #11] [#13 obj #12]

}

<#2:report>

<#3:received>

<#4:I>

[#2 cnt #B][#3 obj #2][#3 rec #4]

}

cdl nl representation in rdf
CDL.Nl Representation in RDF

<cdl:Compound rdf:about= “event " rdf:ID= “#A" > <cdl:binrel> <uw:received rdf:ID= “#3" > .

<uw:received rdf:ID= “#3" > <cdl:obj> <uw:report rdf:ID= “#2" > .

<uw:received rdf:ID= “#3" > <cdl:rec> <uw:I rdf:ID= “#4" > .

<cdl:Compound rdf:about= “event " rdf:ID= “#A" > <cdl:binrel> < uw:report rdf:ID= “#2" > .

<uw:report rdf:ID= “#2" > <cdl:cnt> < cdl:Compound rdf:ID= “#B" > .

< cdl:Compound rdf:about= “event " rdf:ID= “#B" > <cdl:binrel> <uw:purchased rdf:ID= “#13" > .

<uw:purchased rdf:ID= “#13" > <cdl:tim> <uw:yesterday rdf:ID= “#11" > .

<uw:purchased rdf:ID= “#13" > <cdl:obj> <uw:computer rdf:ID= “#12" > .

further information on cdl unl
Further Information on CDL, UNL

CDL: www.instsec.org/tr

UNL: www.undl.org

ad