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计算机组成原理. 第 4 章 指令系统. 第 4 章 存储系统. 学习内容: 第 1 节 指令格式和指令编码 第 2 节 操作数的存储及其寻址方式 第 3 节 指令系统 学习目标与要求: 理解指令中应包含的信息及其编码 掌握常用指令及指令格式 理解常用的寻址方法及其用途 了解常见指令的种类和功能. 4.1 指令格式和指令编码. 指令 :控制计算机执行某种操作的命令。 机器语言 :计算机硬件实体直接表示控制信息的语言。 机器语言程序 :用机器语言编制的程序。

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计算机组成原理

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6136381

4


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4

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3


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4.1


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4.1


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4.1


4 1 1

4.1.1

  • mn

  • nlog2m


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  • IBM 360/3708256


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  • Intel 8086PDP11


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  • 1644

  • 416

  • 1515151661


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  • 164117264

  • 124161116115

  • 88516807280728

  • 412816128

  • 6441664/1641284124


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  • 100

    1

    21001090%9010%

    110027<100<28,700000000~1100011

    210 40000~1001

    9010100000~11111001

    4 x 90%+8 x 10%=4.4


4 1 2

4.1.2

  • 1

  • A1

  • A2

  • A3

  • A4

  • (A1)OP(A2)A3A4


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  • PC PC

  • PC


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  • A1

  • A2

  • A3

  • (A1)OP(A2)A3

  • PC


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  • A1A2

  • (A1)OP(A2)A1 (A1)OP(A2)A2


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  • SSA1A2

  • RR A1A2

  • RS A1A2


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  • RRRISCRR


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  • A

  • INCDECNEGOP(A)A

  • AC(AC)OP(A)AC

  • A


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  • HALTWAITNOP


4 1 3

4.1.3


4 1 4

4.1.4

  • (AssemblyLanguage)(Memoni)(Symbol)(Label)


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4.2

4.2.1

1.

  • ASCII


4 2 1

4.2.1

2.

  • 100000032

  • 1000000111101000010010000000F424032000F4240000F424040420F 00

3

3

2

2

1

1

0

0


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3.

364864481632643264


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648

4


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648


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0

4

6

1

3

2

5

7

12

14

15

8

9

10

11

13

20

22

16

17

19

18

21

23

26

27

24

25

28

29

30

31

35

32

33

34

36

39

37

38

648

3000000


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4.

  • LIFOFILO

    1.


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4.

  • SP


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  • SP1

  • (SP)-1SP

  • (A)(SP)A

  • SP1

  • ((SP))AA

  • (SP)+1SP


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4.


4 2 2

4.2.2

( PC ) + 1 PC


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  • PC1

  • 3


4 2 21

4.2.2

  • A EA


4 2 22

4.2.2

  • 1.

    • pushpop


4 2 23

OP

4.2.2

  • 2

  • Intel 8086

  • MOV AX2000H 2000HAX

DataD


4 2 24

R0

Ri

Rn

4.2.2

  • 3.

    • SRi

    • S=(Ri)


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4.

  • EA


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4.

  • Intel 8086

  • MOV AX[2000H]

  • 2000HAX


4 2 25

4.2.2

  • 5.


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5.

  • E(Rn) Data((Rn))


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  • Intel 8086

  • MOV AL[BX]

  • BX2000H(2000H)80H AL80H


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  • Intel 8086

  • MOV AL[BX]

  • BX2000H(2000H)80H AL80H


4 2 26

4.2.2

  • 6.

    • A


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6.

E(A) Data ((A))


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  • MOV AL2000H

  • E(A)(2000H)3000H

  • Data50H

AL

50H

3000H

2000H

2001H


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  • E(((A)))


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  • 16101k1664k64

  • ()


4 2 27

4.2.2

  • 7.

    • PCDEA=(PC)+D


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  • PC

  • PCDisp


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  • 8086 JNC 03H 0 (PC)03H1000H

  • PC1002H

  • 1002H0003H1005H

  • JNC 0FDH

  • 1002HFFFDH0FFFH


4 2 28

4.2.2

  • PCDPC


4 2 29

4.2.2

  • 8.

    • RxAEA=(Rx)+ARx

    • S=((Rx)+A)


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8

  • E(Rx)D Data(E)


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  • Intel 8086

  • MOV AL[BX+4]

  • BX2000HBX+42004H

  • (2004H)82H AL82H


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  • Intel 8086

  • LODS AL(SI)SISI1

+1


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8

  • RbDEA=(Rb)+D

  • S=((Rb)+D)


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8

  • E(Rb)Disp


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4 2 210

4.2.2

  • 9.


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4.3

  • 4.3.1

  • 1.

    • MOV

      • LOAD

      • STORE


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  • 8086

  • MOV ALBL ALBL

  • MOV ALDisp(BX)(SI) AL((BX)(SI)+Disp)

  • IBM370

  • R1R316

  • B2

  • D2


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  • E2(B2)+D2

  • E2R1R3

  • R1R6R3R11E26R6R116


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2

  • 11


4 3 1

4.3.1

  • 3.

  • 4.


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    • JMP

  • PC(PC)+PCAPC


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  • CALL


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  • CPU

  • CPU

  • Intel 8086 CPU


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5./

  • /

  • /

  • /

  • I/O

  • I/O()I/O


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5./

  • I/O

  • PDP11I/OMOV

  • I/O

  • I/OI/O

  • CPUI/OI/OI/OI/OI/OI/OI/O


4 3 11

4.3.1

  • 6.

    • CPU

  • 7.

  • 8.


4 3 2 cisc risc

4.3.2 CISCRISC

  • CISCComplex Instruction Set Computer

  • RISCReduced Instruction Set Computer

  • 80 20

  • 80% 20%

  • 20% 80%


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RISC

  • LOAD / STORE

  • CPU


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CISC

  • CPU


Cisc risc

.CISCRISC

CISC RISC

  • 200 100

  • 4 4

  • 4 4

  • LOAD/STORE


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  • Login