Overview of reproduction
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OVERVIEW OF REPRODUCTION. M. A. Kai-Kai. Learning Objectives. Understanding: A natomy of the male and female reproductive systems Structure of the gonad as a cytogenic and endocrine organ.

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OVERVIEW OF REPRODUCTION

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Overview of reproduction

OVERVIEW OF REPRODUCTION

M. A. Kai-Kai


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives.

Understanding:

  • Anatomy of the male and female reproductive systems

  • Structure of the gonad as a cytogenic and endocrine organ.

  • Sequence of reproduction from gametogenesis in the testis and ovary to germ cells transported and fertilised in the female uterine tube; formation of zygote.

  • The processes of folliculogenesis and formation of the female gamete.

  • Spermatogenesis.

  • Fertilisation.


Overview the gonads

OVERVIEW The Gonads

  • Male and female reproductive are homologoussimilar embryologic origin, structure and functions.

  • Consists of gonads(testis and ovary) and genital tubes/ducts.

  • Paired gonads are cytogenic(gametogenesis)

    and endocrine(hormones)

  • Gametogenesis

  • Genital tubes transport gametes.

  • Fertilisation and development of embryo occurs in female tubes.

1.Developing follicles

2.Mature follicle

3.Mesovarium

4.Uterine horn

5.Blood vessels


Overview of reproduction

OVERVIEW. The female

Reproductive tract of bitch

Suspensory ligament

Ovary

Uterine tube

Uterine horn

1.Different parts of the female reproductive system each with specific functions.

  • Paired uterine tubesinfundibulum, ampulla and isthmustransportoocytes,sperm and embryo,

  • Uterusuterinehorn,body and cervix.

  • Vagina, Vestibule

  • External genitalia Vulva,clotoris

    2.Transient seasonal changes in structure and function.

    3 Functional sequence of the femalegametogenesis/

    Folliculogenesisovulation

    Fertilisationdevelopment.

    4. Age changes in structure

Suspensory Lig.

Intercornual

Lig.

Uterine tube

Ureter

Mesosalpinx

Bladder

Uterine horn

Body of uterus

Mesometrium

Cervical canal

Cervix

Vagina

Urethral opening

Vestibular bulb

Vestibule

Ischiourethralis

and ischiocavernous

muscle

Constrictor

Vestibuli muscle

Clitoris

Labium

Fossa clitoridis


Descriptive terms

Descriptive Terms

Female animals can be:

  • Reproductive cycleanoestrus, proestrus,oestrus, metoestrus, and dioestrus

  • Ovulation(overt, cyclic)

  • Monoestrus.

  • Polyoestrus

  • Nulliparous

  • Parous

  • Monocotous

  • Polycotous


Structure of ovary

Structure Of Ovary


Male reproductive organs

Male Reproductive Organs

  • Paired testis in scrotum

  • Genitaltubesductuliefferensepididymis

    ductus deferens.

  • Accessory sex glands,

    ampulla,vesicular,prostate,

    Bulbouretral gland.

  • Penis.

  • Sequence of reproduction

    Spermatogenesistransport

    semeninvaginauterine tube

    fertilisation at ampulla-isthmic

    junction.


Gross structure of testis

Gross structure of testis

  • Gross structure

    1.Testis parenchyma

    2.Mediastinum(M) and rete testis.

  • Pampiniform plexus

    blood vessels.


Gametogenesis

GAMETOGENESIS

Femaleoogenesis and folliculogenesis

Malespermatogenesis

Two phases:

  • Hormone-independent phase

    in foetal gonad and before puberty

    --gonocytes undergo mitosis

    --primordial and primary follicles form in ovary

    --prespermatogonia form in testis.

  • Hormone-dependent phase>

    --begins at puberty

    -- in ovary folliculogenesis and oogenesis form hierarchy of folliclesovulation.

    --testisspermatogenesis


Gametogenesis1

Gametogenesis.

  • Gametogenesis

    --meiotic/reductiondivision

  • First meiotic divisioncrossing

  • over at prophase 1 between paternal and maternal chromosomesgenetic variability2 haploid germ cells

  • Second meiotic divisionnormal mitosis4 haploid germ cells.

    --male germ cell undergo morphogenesischange in cell morphology.

  • Germ cells from primordial cellstwo processes

    --Oogenesis in femaleova

    --Spermatogenesis in malespermatozoa

  • Meiosis2 divisions

  • Diploid number restored at fertilisation.


Folliculogenesis follicular hierarchy

FOLLICULOGENESISFollicular Hierarchy

Dependent on:

1.Dimensional criteria. Size

2.Morphological criteria

--thickness of the theca and granulosa layer

--degree of vascularisation

--position of antral cavities

--degree of vascularisation

--quantity of muscle fibres and interstitial tissue.

3.Normal functional follicles e.g. corpus luteum

4.Atretic follicles


Overview of reproduction

The Oocyte

  • Formation and development of ova and occurs in two stages.

    1. Foetal gonad, gonocytes undergo mitosis and induced into meiosis(MIF).

    --meiosis I arrested in prophase I, forms primary oocyte.

    2.Puberty-->FSH,LH,secretion leads to follicular development and oocyte maturation.

    --hormonal influence-->growth, meiosis I and meiosis II in oocyteforms secondary oocyte.

  • folliculostatin/inhibin synchronises

    events in ovulation.

    --co-ordinates growth and maturation of oocyte and granulosa cells.


Follicular hierarchy

Follicular Hierarchy

  • Primordial follicles

  • Follicular growth controlled Follicle Stimulating hormone(FSH) and estrogen

  • Early Primary folliclelayer follicular cells.

    --eostrogen is mitogeniccells proliferate.

  • Late Primary follicle.

    --stratified Granulosa

    --theca cells and zona pellucida(ZP) form.

  • Secondary Follicle,

    --more FSH,oestrogen receptors

    --formation of Corona radiata

    --granulosa cells secrete follicular fluid into intercellular clefts

  • Graafian/preovulatoryfollicledominant follicles with more FSH receptors

    --intercellular spaces coalesce into single antrum

    --follicular liquorcontainsnutrients and hormones.

    --granulosa cells distributed into peripheral parietal layer,coronaradiata and cumulus oophorus .

    --the CR support and accompany the oocyte at ovulation.Ovum devoid of CR do not fertilise.


Ovulation

Ovulation

  • Mechanisms

    --hormonal surge leads to increase in enzyme activity(collagenase)

    --increased intrafollicular pressure.

    --neural

  • Ovulation; rupture of ovarian wall and follicle releasing gamete.

  • Gamete transported and fertilised in uterine tube.

  • Granulosa cells and theca interna become luteinisedform corpus luteum(CL), a transitory endocrine organ.

  • Luteal phaseprogesterone secretion.

  • Formation, maintenance and regression of CL under hormonal control.

  • Life span of CL dependent on luterophic LH and luteolytic PG2a.


Spermatogenesis

Spermatogenesis

  • Functions:

    1.Renewal of spermatogenic stem cell

    2.Reduction of chromosome to haploid state by meiosis.

    3. Metamorphogenesis of a convential cell into a flagella spermatozoa.

  • Mechanism:

    1. Spermatocytogenesis

    mitosis of stem cell spermatogonia A.

    2. Meiosisreduction division

    3. Spermiogenesis

    metamorphogenesis


Spermiogenesis

Spermiogenesis

  • A process of morphogenesis, changing typical cell into spermatozoa with flagella

  • Consists of:

    Golgi phasegolgi membrane forms cap over nucleus.(1,2).

    Acrosome phaseformation of Acrosome from Golgi.(3)

    3. Spermiogenesis.(4,5)

    Formation of flagellum.

    --organisation of contractile axoneme

    --organisation of mitochondria in

    middle piece and principal piece

    --organisation of dense fibrous sheath.

  • The spermatozoastructureacrosome, middle piece, the flagellum.

AX. Axoneme

PC. Posterior centriole

DC. Distal centriole

Middle piece

axoneme


Hierarchy of spermatocytes

Hierarchy Of Spermatocytes


Transport of gametes fertilisation and implantation

Transport of gametes,fertilisation and implantation

1.Ova ovulated from ovary, transported through uterine

Tube.

2.Sperm deposited in vaginatransportedcapacitation, acrosomecapacity to fertilise.

3.Fertilisation at ampulla-isthmic junction.

4.Zygote transportedimplantated in endometrium.

Fertilisation at

Ampulla-isthmic junction

3

4

4

1

ovum

sperm

2


Fertilisation

Fertilisation

  • Capacitation

  • Fertilisation consists of:

    1. Binding of sperm to

    zona pellucida

    2. Acrosome reaction:

    3. Penetration of Zona Pellucida

    The cortical reaction

    4.Fusion of plasma membranes of sperm

    and egg

    5.Sperm nucleus enters oocyte, forms pronucleus,

    meiosis II complete.


Differences in mammalian gametogenesis

Female oogenesis

1. Female born with definite number of post mitotic follicles and gametes needed in life.

2. Meiosis begins in the fetal ovary, is arrested at prophase I and is resumed at puberty.

3. Meiosis imitated once in a definite group of cells

4. Differentiation of gametes occurs while diploid in the first meiotic prophase

5. Gamete has typical cellular structure.

6. There are more variations in the mechanisms oogenesis according to patterns of reproduction

Male Spermatogenesis

1. Male gametes undergo mitosis throughout life, but Sertoli cells are post mitotic

2. Meiosis starts at puberty.

3. Meiosis initiated continuously in a mitotically dividing stem cell population.

4. Differentiation of gametes occurs while haploid after meiosis ends.

5. The spermatozoa has atypical structure.

6 There is less variation in the mechanisms of spermatogenesis.

Differences in mammalian gametogenesis


References

References

1. Alberts, B; Johnson, A; Lewis, J; Martin, R; Roberts, K; & Walter, P(2002).

The Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th.Edition. Garland Science Chapter 20.

2. Dyce, K; M.,Sack, W;O, & Wensing, C;J;G.(2006). 3rd. Edition. Textbook of Veterianry Anatomy.Pages183 – 202, 435 -453

3. Neill,J;D.(editor-in-Chief). Physiology of Reproduction. 3rd.Edition. Elsevier. London.Volume 1. Page3-113.


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