City states in mesopotamia
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City-States in Mesopotamia. Rivers=Life Blood. Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Flow From modern day Turkey To Persian Gulf. Geography. Mesopotamia Greek=“Land Between the Rivers” Fertile Crescent Fertile plains Rain=Flooding Flooding=Silt Silt=Farmland Wheat & Barley (villages grow).

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City-States in Mesopotamia

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City states in mesopotamia

City-States in Mesopotamia


Rivers life blood

Rivers=Life Blood

  • Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

  • Flow

    • From modern day Turkey

    • To Persian Gulf


Geography

Geography

  • Mesopotamia

    • Greek=“Land Between the Rivers”

  • Fertile Crescent

    • Fertile plains

      • Rain=Flooding

      • Flooding=Silt

      • Silt=Farmland

      • Wheat & Barley (villages grow)


Environmental challenges

Environmental Challenges

  • Settling & farming began Southern Mesopotamia

  • Sumerians 3500 B.C.

    • Mixed w/ farms

    • Language b/c dominant

    • Attracted

      • Good soil

      • Flat

      • Swampy

      • Land of Sumer


Disadvantages

Disadvantages

  • Flooding = unpredictable rivers

    • Becomes desert

    • Little/no rain

  • Sumer small region

    • Massachusetts

    • Open plain

    • Clusters of reed huts

  • Natural Resources limited

    • No supply of stone, wood, metal


Solutions

Solutions

  • Irrigation ditches

  • Defense (mud make city walls)

  • Traded grain, cloth, & tools w/ mountain people

  • Solutions = ?

    • Organization

    • Leadership

    • Laws

    • Government


Sumerians create city states

Sumerians create City-States

  • 5 characteristics of civilizations

  • 3000 B.C. had # of cities

    • Uruk

    • Kish

    • Lagash

    • Umma

    • Ur

  • What is City-State?


Ziggurat

Ziggurat

  • Center of city

  • Place of worship

  • Government center (pay taxes)

  • Priests have power

    • Political

    • Religious


Sumerian culture

Sumerian Culture

  • Religion

    • Polytheistic

    • Enlil (most powerful god)

    • Udugs (wickedness gods)

      • Cause disease

      • Misfortune

      • Any human trouble

    • 3,000 gods

      • Like humans

      • We are servants

      • Angry gods = natural disasters

      • Sacrifices

    • Death = “Land of no return”


Sumerian social classes

Sumerian Social Classes


Science technology

Science & Technology

  • Inventions

    • Wheel

    • Sail

    • Plow

  • Bronze

  • Writing

  • Known maps 2300 B.C.

  • Recorded scientific investigations

  • Geometry & arithmetic

    • # system based on 60

    • 60 seconds = 1 minute

    • 360°


Empire builders

Empire Builders

  • Wars

    • City-states @ war w/ one another 3000-2000 B.C.

    • Weaken state

    • Culture survived


Sargon of akkad

Sargon of Akkad

  • 2350 B.C. defeats Sumer

  • From North

  • Semitic language = related to Hebrew & Arabic

  • 1st Empire

    • Mediterranean coast in West

    • To present day Iran in East

    • Lasted 200 years

      • Civil War

      • Famine

      • Invasions


Babylonian empire

Babylonian Empire

  • 2000 B.C. nomadic warriors (Amorites) invade

  • Overwhelm Sumerians

  • Babylon b/c capital

  • Hammurabi 1792-1750 B.C. (peak)


Hummurabi s code

Hummurabi’s Code

  • Uniforming code in kingdom

  • Collected

    • Existing rules

    • Judgment

    • Laws


Code cont

Code cont.

  • Engrave in stone

    • Places throughout empire

    • 282 Laws

      • Community

      • Family relations

      • Business conduct

      • Crime

  • Laws apply to everyone different punishments

    • Rich & poor

    • Men & women

  • Eye for an Eye

  • Significance

    • Government responsible


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