Grade configuration school size and class size
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Grade Configuration, School Size and Class Size. Planning and Development Committee April 2, 2012 Brenda Koch, Executive Director Dr. Josh Middleton, Assistant Superintendent.

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Grade Configuration, School Size and Class Size

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Grade configuration school size and class size

Grade Configuration, School Size and Class Size

Planning and Development Committee

April 2, 2012

Brenda Koch, Executive Director

Dr. Josh Middleton, Assistant Superintendent


Grade configuration school size and class size

“Any vision of what our schools need to become so that children can succeed in the new economy must be based firmly on a foundation that affirms that we are once and for all sincere about giving every American child a quality education.”

Dr. Rudy Crew


Memories assumptions research

Memories, Assumptions, Research

  • Correlates of Effective Schools - Lezotte

  • Clear and focused mission

  • High expectations for success

  • Instructional leadership

  • Frequent monitoring of student progress

  • Opportunity to learn/time on task

  • Safe and orderly environment

  • Home-School Relations


Grade configuration essential elements

Grade Configuration Essential Elements

  • “Social equity” – provide academic, social-emotional, health, and other services needed to succeed.

  • Student poverty is the most significant factor in predicating achievement – student background matters.

  • Overwhelming, economically disadvantaged students perform better academically in smaller schools.

    • Create organized structures that support high-quality relationships.

    • Find better ways to reach out to families and communities.

      • National Forum to Accelerate Middle-Grades Reform, 2008


Grade configuration essential elements1

Grade Configuration Essential Elements

  • “Academic excellence”

    • High standards for ALL students with a rigorous and relevant curriculum.

    • Best to expend energy on creating a curriculum that intellectually engages and inspires young adolescents.

  • “Responsiveness to the unique needs of young adolescents”

    • Personalized and caring learning environment.

    • Positive, healthy school climates.

      • National Forum to Accelerate Middle-Grades Reform, 2008


Grade configuration essential elements2

Grade ConfigurationEssential Elements

  • Shared and sustained leadership.

  • Deep commitment to continuous improvement.

  • Well-prepared teachers who know content and how to teach it.

  • Powerful learning and reflection.

  • Small learning communities, mentoring (advisories), supplemental services, etc..


Grade configuration considerations

Grade Configuration Considerations

  • Number of school transitions.

  • Cost and length of student travel.

  • Increase or decrease in parent involvement.

  • Number of students at each grade level which affects groupings and courses offered.

  • Effect of school setting on student achievement.


Grade configuration considerations1

Grade Configuration Considerations

  • Does it impact neighborhood schools on staying open or closing?

  • Opportunities for interactions between age groups.

  • Influence of older students on younger students.

  • Building design – it is suitable for multiple grade levels?


Grade configuration considerations2

Grade Configuration Considerations

  • Focus on improving schools that are already serving students.

  • What takes place inside each school is more important than the configuration.

  • Filled with positive students and adults actively engaged in learning.


School size

School Size

  • No universal definition of small or large schools.

  • A gap remains between research and best practice regarding school size.

  • Optimum school size is a range in which economic efficiency and educational outcomes show both show positive relationship.


References

References

Beane, J. & Lipka, R. (2006). Guess again: Will changing the grades save middle- level education? Educational Leadership, 63(7), 26-30.

Cotton, K. May 1996 School size, school climate, and student performance. School Improvement research series. Retrieved from http://upstate.colgate.edu/pdf/Abt_merger/Cotton_1996_Size_Climate_Performance.pdf on March 20, 2012.

Crew, R., (2007). Only connect: The way to save our schools. New York: Sarah Crichton Books.

Fowler, W.J. & Walber, H. J. (1991). School size, characteristics, and outcomes. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. 13(2).

Graue, E., & Rauscher, E. (2009). Researcher perspectives on class size

reduction. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 17(9). Retrieved from

http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v17n9/ on March 31, 2012.

Johnson, J.D., Howley, C.B., & Howley, A.A. (2002). Small works in Arkansas: How poverty and the size of school. Athens, OH: Ohio University.


References1

References

Leithwood, K. & Jantzi, D. (2009). A review of empirical evidence about school size effects: A policy perspective. A Review of Educational Research. Retrieved from http://rer.sagepub.com/content/79/1/464 on March 30, | 2012.

Lezotte, L.W. (2010) What effective schools do: Re-envisioning the correlates.

Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.

McEntire, N. (2005). Grade configurations in K-12 schools. Clearinghouse on Early Education and Parenting. Retrieved from www.ceep.crc.uiuc.edu/poptopics/gradeconfig.html on March 30, 2012.

National Forum to Accelerate Middle-Grades Reform. 2008, July (5). Policy statement on grade configuration. Retrieved from www.mgforum.org on March 30, 2012.

Northwest Regional Education Laboratory. What the research says (or doesn’t say) about K-8 versus middles school grade configurations. Education Northwest. Retrieved from http://educationnorthwest.org/print/1694 on March 30, 2012.


References2

References

Ready, D., Lee, V., & Welner, K.G. (2004). Educational equity and school structure: School size, overcrowding, and schools-within-schools. Retrieved from http://nepc.colorado.edu/files/1882.pdf on March 20, 2012.

Rural School and Community Trust Summary of Recent Research, A. (2002, March). Small works in Arkansas: How poverty and the size of schools and school districts affect school performance in Arkansas. Retrieved from http://www.ruraledu.org/user_uploads/file/Small_Works_In_Arkan.pdf on March 22, 2012.

Slate, J.R. & Jones, C. H. (2005). Effects of school size: A review of the literature with recommendations. Retrieved from http://www.usca.edu/essays/vol132005/slate.pdf on March 20, 2012.

Stevenson, K. R. (2006, April). School size and its relationship to student outcomes and school climate: A review and analysis of eight South Carolina state-wide studies. National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. Retrieved from http://www.ncef.org/pubs/size_outcomes.pdf on March 20, 2012.


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