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Gender Policies in Europe. Presentation by Martha Franken, director International Conference: Gender Mainstreaming Cosenza, December 2nd, 2005. Outline. Athena 3b working group European Union – mainstreaming Council of Europe – mainstreaming Flanders – Equal Opportunities Policy.

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Gender policies in europe
Gender Policies in Europe

Presentation by Martha Franken, director

International Conference:

Gender Mainstreaming

Cosenza, December 2nd, 2005

Athena 3B


  • Athena 3b working group

  • European Union – mainstreaming

  • Council of Europe – mainstreaming

  • Flanders – Equal Opportunities Policy

Athena 3B

Athena 3b
Athena 3B

  • Athena = Advanced Thematic Network of Gender Studies in Europe

  • 3B = “Reconceptualizing the Notion of Equal Opportunities and Rethinking the Policy Aims and Instruments – a joint effort of Women’s Studies in the Academia, Policy Makers and Women’s organizations

Athena 3B

Preliminary activities done
Preliminary activities done

  • First meeting with participants in Madrid 2001 and Portoroz 2002 - growing group

  • First seminar and meeting in Antwerp July 2002

  • Stream Equality at Lund conference Aug 2003 (5 workshops in this stream)

  • The meeting in Lund →paper: Scope of project

Athena 3B

3b aims of project
3B Aims of project

  • Create a Task Force (Think tank)

  • Develop strategic policy objectives

  • EU inventory of policy tools and instruments

  • Training of gender experts

  • Introduction topic EO in university curricula

Athena 3B

3b working methods
3B Working Methods

  • Building up infrastructure for dialogue between actors

  • Analysing bottlenecks, practices, implementation

  • Quantitative/Qualitative research and survey

  • Seminars with presentation of products

Athena 3B

3b products of project
3B Products of project

  • EU Task Force (platform for discussion)

  • Discussion papers

  • Database of experts

  • Inventory and evaluation of policy tools & instruments

  • Inventory of best practices of training possibilities

  • Development of new policy recommendation and tools

  • Teaching materials

  • Dissemination, articles, books...

Athena 3B

3b participants velvet triangle
3B Participants (velvet triangle)

  • Mostly researchers

  • A few policy makers

  • A few women’s movement

  • Combination of the three

  • More actors of the velvet triangle in the national projects that will be going on in the frame of this project

Athena 3B

3b involved countries
3B Involved countries

  • Austria

  • Belgium

  • Cyprus

  • Czech Republic

  • Denmark

  • Finland

  • France

  • Germany

  • Greece

  • Hungary

  • Iceland

  • Italy

  • Malta

  • Netherlands

  • Romania

  • Serbia

  • Slovenia

  • Spain

  • Sweden

  • Switzerland

  • UK

Athena 3B

Results in 2005
Results in 2005

  • 40 discussion papers exist about different topics: we are clustering

  • Progress available at website

  • Expertdatabase started

  • Digma database Amazone for mainstreaming instruments

Athena 3B

European union gender policy
European Union gender policy

  • Treaty of Rome 1957

  • Gender Equality incorporated in DG Employment and Social Policy

  • Mainstreaming introduced since 1995 (Beijing)

Athena 3B

Gender mainstreaming in eu
Gender Mainstreaming in EU

  • Incorporation of Equal Opportunities into Community Policies

  • Framework Strategy on E O for Men and Women (2001 – 2005)

  • Action Programme on E O (2001 – 2005)

Athena 3B

Incorporation of eo into community policies
Incorporation of EO into community Policies

  • The EU sets out the principle that the gender perspective should systematically be taken into account in all Community Policies and Actions; this should be done actively and openly at the planning stage

  • Act: Communication of the Commission 21 february 1996

Athena 3B

Mainstreaming in different areas
Mainstreaming in different areas

  • Employment and the labour market

  • Women entrepreneurs

  • Education and training

  • People’s rights

  • Development cooperation

  • Staff policy

  • The European Structural Funds

Athena 3B

Community framework strategy
Community Framework Strategy

  • Objective:

    To establish a framework for action providing for gender mainstreaming in all Community Activities in suc a way that they help to attain the goal of removing inequalities and promoting gender equality

  • Act: Commission communication 7 June 2000

Athena 3B

Community framework strategy1
Community Framework Strategy

  • Dual-track approach:

    • Gender mainstreaming in all Community policies

    • Introduction of special measures for women

  • The ms approach marks a major change compared to past

Athena 3B

Community framework strategy2
Community Framework Strategy

  • The framework strategy encompasses five inter-related fields of action:

    • Economic life

    • Equal participation and representation

    • Social rights

    • Civil life

    • Gender roles and stereotypes

Athena 3B

5th community action programme on eo
5th Community Action Programme on EO

  • Objective:

    To promote equality for men and women, particularly by assisting and supporting the Com Framework strategy= funding of projects

  • Act: Council Decision 20 December 2000

Athena 3B

5th community action programme
5th Community Action Programme

  • The actions:

    • Raising awareness

    • Analysis of factors and policies

    • Transnational cooperation

  • Funding: 50 mio euro for 2001 - 2005

Athena 3B

Future actions eu
Future Actions EU

  • The framework strategy and community Action programme will be followed by a programme called “Progress”

  • 2007: European Year of Equal Opportunities for All

  • European Gender Institute

Athena 3B

I what is council of europe
I. What is Council of Europe ?

  • political organisation

  • founded in 1949

  • started with 10 now 44 European member states

  • Aims:

    • promote democracy, human rights and rule of law;

    • develop common responses to political, social, cultural and legal challenges;

  • headquarters: Strasbourg (France)

  • 2 constituent organs : committee of Ministers and Parliamentary Assembly

  • + CLRAE

  • European Court of Human Rights

Athena 3B

Working structures for equality
Working Structures for Equality

  • CDEG

  • Mandate CDEG

  • CDEG working groups

  • secretariat : Equality division in Media, Equality and Minorities Department

  • close cooperation with other committees and international organisations

Athena 3B

Themes for equality in coe
Themes for Equality in CoE

  • Human Rights: protection, promotion and prevention

  • Human Rights and democratic practices on a daily basis

Athena 3B

A human rights protection promotion and prevention
A.Human Rights : protection, promotion and prevention

  • Trafficking in human beings for sexual exploitation

  • combating violence against women

  • free choice in matters of reproduction and lifestyles

  • Human Rights of girls and young women

  • Migration and equality between women and men

  • women’s participation in conflict prevention and peacebuilding

Athena 3B

B human rights and democracy
B.Human Rights and democracy

  • Balanced representation of Women and Men in all Aspects of Life

  • Gender Mainstreaming

  • Equality in Working World

  • The Role of Men…

  • Institutional Mechanisms

  • Co-operation with NGO’s

Athena 3B

What is mainstreaming
What is Mainstreaming ?


Gender Mainstreaming is the (re)organisation, improvement, development and evaluation of policy processes, so that a gender equality perspective is incorporated in all policies at all levels and at all stages, by the actors normally involved in policymaking.

Athena 3B


  • Political will

  • Specific gender equality policy

  • Statistics

  • Comprehensive knowledge of gender relations

  • Knowledge of the administration

  • Necessary funds and Human Resources

  • Participation of both sexes in decision-making processes

Athena 3B

Mainstreaming when
Mainstreaming : When?

  • Which moment in the policy process?

    • Policy preparing and planning stage

    • Policy deciding stage

    • Policy implementing stage

    • Policy evaluating stage

Athena 3B

Mainstreaming what
Mainstreaming : what ?

  • Which policy areas?

    • Most policy fields are relevant for gender mainstreaming because they directly or indirectly have an impact on the life of women and men

    • One can start with the crucial areas of concern

Athena 3B

Mainstreaming where
Mainstreaming : where ?

  • Which policy levels?

    • All levels

Athena 3B

Coe new developments
Coe : new developments

  • Recommendation R(98)14 on Gender mainstreaming

  • Message to other steering committees of the Coe to use GM in their programmes of activities

  • Informal network on GM – yearly meeting

  • New report on Gender Budgeting

Athena 3B

Gender budgeting
Gender Budgeting

  • Definition:

    GB is an application of gender mainstreaming in the budgetary process. It means a gender-based assessment of budgets, incorporating a gender perspective at all levels of the budgetary process and restructuring revenues and expenditures in order to promote gender equality.

Athena 3B

Equal opportunities in flanders
Equal Opportunities in Flanders

  • A mainstreaming case:

    • Situated in coordination department of Ministry of Flanders

    • Interdepartmental Commission Equal Opportunities

    • New approach with Open Coordination Method

Athena 3B