Parental education and child health evidence from a natural experiment in taiwan
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 32

Parental Education and Child Health: Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Taiwan PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 99 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Parental Education and Child Health: Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Taiwan. Shin-Yi Chou Lehigh University & NBER Jin-Tan Liu ( 劉錦添) National Taiwan University & NBER Michael Grossman City University of New York Graduate Center & NBER Theodore Joyce Baruch College & NBER.

Download Presentation

Parental Education and Child Health: Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Taiwan

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Parental education and child health evidence from a natural experiment in taiwan

Parental Education and Child Health: Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Taiwan

Shin-Yi Chou

Lehigh University & NBER

Jin-Tan Liu (劉錦添)

National Taiwan University & NBER

Michael Grossman

City University of New York Graduate Center & NBER

Theodore Joyce

Baruch College & NBER


Parental education and child health evidence from a natural experiment in taiwan

臺灣過去50年,兩大公共政策

  • 1968年 九年國教

  • 1995年 全民健保

    Duflo (2001), “Schooling and Labor Market Consequences of School Construction in Indonesia:Evidence from an Unusual Policy Experiment,” American Economic Review, 91, 795-813.

    Currie and Moretti (2002),”Mother’s Education and the Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital: Evidence from College Openings,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118, 1495-1532.

    Clark and Hsieh (2000), “Schooling and Labor Market Impact of the 1968 Nine-Year Education Program in Taiwan,” Working Paper, Department of Economics, Princeton University


Education and health

Education and Health:

  • Michael Grossman (1972), “On the Concept of Health Capital and The Demand for Health,” Journal of Political Economy, 80, 223-255.

  • Michael Grossman (2000), “The Human Capital Model,” in Culyer and Newhouse eds. Handbook of Health Economics, Vol. 1. Elesevier Science B.V.

  • Michael Grossman and Robert Kaestner (1997), “Effects of Education on Health,” in Behrman and Stacery eds. The Social Benefits of Education, University of Michigan Press.


Education and health1

Education and Health

  • Michael Grossman, “Education and Nonmarket Outcomes,” in Hanushek and Welch eds. Handbook of the Economics of Education, Elsevier Science.

  • (NBER working papers No. 11582).

  • Conceptual Foundations:

  • 1. Productive efficiency

  • 2. Allocative efficiency

  • Causality?

  • Y = X B + U

  • “The third variable” may cause schooling and health to vary in the same direction.

  • “The time preference hypothesis”


Empirical methods

Empirical Methods:

  • 1. Include past health measures in regressions

  • 2. Siblings or twins samples:

  • control for unmeasured third variables

  • differences in outcomes due to differences in

  • schooling between siblings or twins.

  • 3. Instrumental variables method (IV):

  • variables are correlated with schooling but not

  • correlated with omitted third variables, such as

  • ability, inherited genetic traits, and time

  • preference.


Instrumental variable iv

Instrumental Variable (IV)

  • Y = X B + U

  • OLS is biased when U is correlated with X

  • Use an IV Z for X

  • βIV = (Z’X)-1 (Z’Y)

  • βIV is consistent when Z satisfies two conditions:

  • 1) Z is uncorrelated with U

  • 2) Z is correlated with X


Instrumental variable iv1

Instrumental Variable (IV)

  • Random encouragement designs:

  • 1. To test the effect of flu vaccine on flu:

  • The IV (the letter) is randomly assigned,

  • but not the treatment (flu vaccine).

  • 2. Distance to hospital with operating facilities

  • as an IV for surgery in heart attacks.

  • 3. Distance to school as an IV for schooling

  • 4. Policy Reforms


How to find iv

How to find IV?

  • 1.Lleras-Muney (2005), Compulsory Education

  • Laws from 1915 to 1939

  • US Censuses of Population for 1960, 1970, 1980

  • The effect of education on mortality

  • 2. Arendt (2005), Compulsory School Reform in

  • Denmark in 1958 and 1975

  • The impact of schooling on self-rated health

  • 3. Spasojevic (2003), 1950 Swedish

  • Comprehensive School Reform.


Difference in difference dd estimators

Difference-in-Difference (DD)Estimators

  • “Natural Experiments” Actual policy changes to identify the effects of policies on outcomes

  • DD: to compare outcomes before and after a policy change for a group affected by the change (Treatment Group, T) to a group not affected by the change (Control Group, C).

  • DD = [E(Y1 ︳T) – E(Y0︳T)] –

  • [E(Y1 ︳C) – E(Y0︳C)]

  • Yi, t = α+ β2 Time + β3 Treatment

  • + β4 (Time* Treatment) + ui,t


Parental education and child health evidence from a natural experiment in taiwan

DD:

  • Meyer, Bruce D. (1995), “Natural and Quasi-experiments in Economics,” Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 13(2), 151-161.

  • Angrist, Joshua D. and Alan B. Krueger (1999), “Empirical Strategies in Labor Economics,” Handbook of Labor Economics.

  • MIT, Harvard:

  • Jonathon, Gruber

  • Duflo, Esther


Parental education and child health evidence from a natural experiment in taiwan

前言

  • 探討主題:Does the parents’ attainment of education affect the health of their children?

  • 研究困難:Unobserved characteristics that affect both the parents’ education levels and the health of their children.

  • 本文實證方法:Compulsory schooling laws in Taiwan affects the levels of Parental education, but is uncorrelated with children’s health


Parental education and child health evidence from a natural experiment in taiwan

?

本文大綱

  • 1968年臺灣九年國民義務教育

  • Data and sample

  • Effect of 1968-Reform on Education

  • Effect of Parental Education on child health outcomes


Parental education and child health evidence from a natural experiment in taiwan

研究背景:1968年延長九年國民義務教育

  • Extended from 6 years to 9 years

  • 140 new high schools were opened

    • Number of junior high schools per thousand primary school graduates increased from 0.8 (1967-1968 academic year) to 1.3 (1968-1969 academic year)

    • The percentage of primary school graduates who entered junior high school increased from 56% (1967-1968 academic year) to 77% (1968-1969 academic year)

  • Intensity of school construction varies across regions.


Parental education and child health evidence from a natural experiment in taiwan

(每1000位國小畢業生中國中的數目)

Junior High Schools per Thousand Primary School Graduates Source: Ministry of Education, Educational Statistics of Republic of China.


Parental education and child health evidence from a natural experiment in taiwan

(每位國小畢業生進入國中的比例)

Number of First Year JH Students to Number of Primary School Graduates

Source: Ministry of Education, Educational Statistics of Republic of China.


Parental education and child health evidence from a natural experiment in taiwan

ProgramIntensity in 1968

(1968年新設國中數目佔1967年每1000 位12歲至14歲學童的比率)

* Program intensity is defined as number of new junior high schools in 1968

per thousand children ages 12-14 in 1967.


Econometric method

Econometric Method:

  • 控制組/對照組: children over/under the age of 11 in 1968

  • Validation of our strategy:

    • The higher the program intensity is, the larger the effect of education reform

    • Program intensity was independent with initial schooling levels


Parental education and child health evidence from a natural experiment in taiwan

Enrollment Rate

Program

Enrollment Rate in 1966 vs. Program Intensity Source: Ministry of Education, Educational Statistics of Republic of China.


Parental education and child health evidence from a natural experiment in taiwan

Program

Percentage of Workers in Agriculture in 1967 vs. Program Intensity Source: The data on percentage of workers in agriculture are from the Taiwan Agricultural Yearbook.


Data and sample

Data and Sample

  • Birth and death certificates, 1978-1999, total 22 years

  • Sample Size: 5,576,868~6,099,832.

  • Child Health outcomes include the probabilities of:low/very low birth weight(less than 2500 grams/1500 grams), pre-maturity, mortality,etc.

  • Sample: women or men satisfying these:

    • Between 1- and 20-years old in 1968

    • Between 22- and 45-years old when they or their wives gave birth in 1978-1999


Effect of 1968 education reform on education

Effect of 1968 Education Reform on Education

  • Basic approach:

  • Sijt is the number of years of formal schooling completed by mother (or father) i born in city/county j with her/his child born in year t.

  • Indices: i: mother (or father), j: city/county, t: year

  • C: cohort dummies,

  • P: program intensity,

  • T: treatment group dummy,

  • R: region of birth(city/county),

  • Y: year dummies, 1978 is an omitted year

19

19

1979

l =1979


Parental education and child health evidence from a natural experiment in taiwan

β (

)

)

β (

Effects of Education Reform on Parents’ Educational Attainment (Basic Approach)


Parental education and child health evidence from a natural experiment in taiwan

1968年九年國教對個人教育成就的影響:

  • Education reform not only has a positive impact on the educational attainment of the treatment groups, but also has a larger impact for the younger women.

  • The 12-14 year-olds may not be a pure control group.

  • Education reform has a bigger impact on father’s educational attainment than on mother’s.

  • Education reform had a larger impact on the education of younger fathers.


Parental education and child health evidence from a natural experiment in taiwan

1968年九年國教對個人教育成就的影響(續):

  • Full specification: replace P x T by P x C(Program Intensity)

  • Coefficient series {bk}:

    • decreases sharply when k=13 (13 years old in year 1968)

    • fluctuates near 0 when k=14 ~ 19

    • all positive for k=0 ~ 11, and decreases from 0 to 11

1999

19

k=1979

l=1979


Parental education and child health evidence from a natural experiment in taiwan

Mothers

Fathers

Coefficients of the Interactions between the Age in 1968

and Program Intensity in the Years of Schooling Regression


Parental education and child health evidence from a natural experiment in taiwan

1968年九年國教對教育成就的影響

  • Restricted Estimation: assume bk=0 when k ³15.

  • We delete the cohort aged 12-14 from our sample.

  • The F-ratios are 15.73 and 16.96 for mother’s and father’s samples, respectively, when the enrollment rate and the percentage of agricultural share are employed as regressors.

  • for every junior high school constructed per 1000 children between the ages of 12 and 14,

    • Mothers 0-5, 6-11: receive 1.0 and 0.72 additional years

    • Fathers 0-5, 6-11: receive 0.84 and 0.77 additional years


Effect of parental education on child health outcome

Effect of Parental Education on Child Health Outcome

  • Basic approach in the first stage

    • Under OLS estimation, higher parental educational attainments significantly reduce the risk of all adverse health outcomes (prematurity, etc.)

    • Under the 2SLS estimation, mother’s years of schooling shows significant impacts only on low and very low birthweight and prematurity.

    • Under the OLS estimation, father’s years of schooling has similar effect as mother’s.

    • Under 2SLS, father’s years of schooling has smaller effect as mother’s.


Parental education and child health evidence from a natural experiment in taiwan

Effects of Parental Schooling on Child Health Outcomes:

OLS and TSLS (Basic Approach in the First Stage)


Effect of parental education on child health outcome1

Effect of Parental Education on Child Health Outcome

  • Restricted estimation in the first stage

    • Similar to previous results except that father’s years of schooling reduces infant and postneonatal mortality.


Parental education and child health evidence from a natural experiment in taiwan

Effects of Parental Schooling on Child Health Outcomes:

OLS and TSLS (Restricted Estimation in the First Stage)


Further questions

Further questions:

  • 1. Control group, treatment group

  • Age:

  • 2. Clustering

  • 3. Group data regression

  • Weights?

  • 4. Mother’s education vs. Father’s education


Parental education and child health evidence from a natural experiment in taiwan

報告完畢,敬請指教


  • Login