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Understanding Corn Processing Co-products Use in Livestock Feeds. John D. Lawrence, Iowa State University Darrell Mark, University of Nebraska. Outline. Trend in corn processing Implications for corn prices Cellulosic ethanol potential Types of corn processing

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Understanding corn processing co products use in livestock feeds

Understanding Corn Processing Co-products Use in Livestock Feeds

John D. Lawrence, Iowa State University

Darrell Mark, University of Nebraska


Outline
Outline Feeds

  • Trend in corn processing

  • Implications for corn prices

  • Cellulosic ethanol potential

  • Types of corn processing

  • Coproducts and nutritional values

  • Factors to consider before feeding

  • Summary


Us ethanol production june 2006
US Ethanol Production FeedsJune 2006

StatusPlantsB/Gal

  • Operational 102 4.75

  • Construction 32 3.03

  • Announced 127 8.21

  • Potential total 261 15.99

  • Potential corn use: 5.3-5.9 B/bu

  • Some estimates are higher

Source: National Corn Growers Association


Implications for corn prices
Implications for Corn Prices Feeds

  • Increased demand for corn is expected to:

    • Increase corn prices

    • Increase corn acres

  • Long run price impact will depend on

    • Price of oil and energy value of ethanol

    • Timing and cost efficiency of biomass to ethanol

    • Inclusion rates of co-product feeds in livestock diets

  • Short term price impact could be significant

    • Weather induced shortages

    • Mismatch of acres and ethanol plants


Biomass ethanol
Biomass Ethanol Feeds

  • Interest in low nitrogen using perennials

  • Switchgrass, wood, municipal waste and exotic plants like kanaf, crotalaria, etc.

  • Also can use corn stover and coproducts like distillers grains and corn gluten feed

  • May reduce demand and acreage of corn

  • Technology “5-years away”, but plant announced to operate in 2009


Two types of processing
Two Types of Processing Feeds

  • Wet mills

    • Very large and costly to construct

    • Multiple products

      • High Fructose Sweetener, corn oil, ethanol

      • Corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed and others

  • Dry mills

    • Generally smaller and less costly

    • Two products

      • Ethanol

      • Distillers grains and solubles


Wet milling corn gluten feed
Wet Milling-Corn Gluten Feed Feeds

STEEP

CORN

GRIND

WASH WATER

SEPARATION

STARCH, SWEETNER, ALCOHOL

GLUTEN MEAL

CORN OIL

STEEP

CORN BRAN

SEM, screenings, dist solubles

WET CORN GLUTEN FEED

DRY CORN GLUTEN FEED


Products of wet corn milling
Products of FeedsWet Corn Milling

  • One bushel of corn yields

    ProductPounds

    • Starch 31.5

      Further processed into 33# of sweetener

      or 2.5 gallons of ethanol.

    • Gluten feed 13.5

    • Gluten meal 2.5

    • Corn meal 1.6


Corn gluten feed cgf
Corn Gluten Feed (CGF) Feeds

  • Corn bran + steep

  • Can be wet or dry

  • Moderate crude protein, CP = 16-23%

    • 80% of CP is DIP (ruminally degradable)

  • Low fat, moderate fiber, TDN = 80

  • 101-115% of energy value of dry-rolled corn

  • Product variation is significant within and across plants due to amount of steep added back to the corn bran

  • Looks like oatmeal


Dry milling distillers grains solubles
Dry Milling-Distillers Grains + Solubles Feeds

CORN

GRIND, WET, COOK

FERMENTATION

YEAST, ENZYMES

STILL

ALCOHOL & CO2

STILLAGE

DISTILLERS GRAINS

WDG, DDG

DISTILLERS SOLUBLES

WDGS

DDGS


Products of dry corn milling
Products of FeedsDry Corn Milling

  • One bushel of corn yields

    • Ethanol 2.7 gallons

    • Distillers grains & solubles 17-18 pounds

      • DGS are one third the weight of the corn and all but the starch is concentrated into this one-third

      • Sulfur is concentrated and may have been used in the fermenting process

      • Mycotoxins, if they existed in the corn are also concentrated 3:1


Distillers grains solubles dgs
Distillers Grains + Solubles (DGS) Feeds

  • About 65% Distillers Grains & 35% Solubles (DM basis)

  • May be wet or dried

  • Higher crude protein, CP = 30%

    • 65% UIP (undegraded, “bypass”, protein)

  • High fat (11%), low fiber, TDN = 70-110

  • Concentrates nutrients 3-fold from corn

    • 0.8% P, 0.35-1.0% Sulfur (variable)

  • WDGS looks like mashed potatoes


New combination products
New “Combination” Products Feeds

  • Modified wet DGS are available

    • (35-65% DM)

  • Hybrid wet & dry plant combining corn bran and distillers solubles  bran cake

    • Example: Dakota Bran Cake



Factors to consider before feeding coproducts
Factors to Consider FeedsBefore Feeding Coproducts

  • Nutrients only have value if needed

    • High protein or energy may not be needed

  • Abrupt changes may put animals off feed

  • Darker brown color indicates it may have been overheated, ties up lysine

  • Upper limits on inclusion rates for some livestock types and weights

  • Excess sulfur possible at high levels and high water levels of sulfur

  • Phosphorous concentration in manure


Factors to consider before feeding coproducts1
Factors to Consider FeedsBefore Feeding Coproducts

  • Storage issues, dry product

    • Additional storage bin

    • Problems with flow ability in bulk bins

  • Storage issues, wet product

    • Wet product will spoil in 7-14 days depending on temperature and storage method

    • Wet product can freeze

    • Requires good bunk management


Challenges
Challenges Feeds

  • DGS is most available in late summer

    • Seasonally cheapest then too

    • Seasonally fewest cattle on feed then too

  • Storing wet DGS product

    • Material exposed to air spoils in 7-14 days depending on temperature

    • Has low pH and does not ensile but will keep in air-tight storage for long periods

    • Spoilage loss stored in silage bags (Walker et al)

      • 20% loss opened and fed day 78-112 post-sealing

      • 28% loss opened and fed day 190-257 post sealing



Storing wdgs
Storing WDGS Feeds

  • Storing wet DGS product

    • Often delivered in truck load lots

    • Can store wet DGS in bunker, silage bag or in pile covered with plastic to protect from air

    • Should mix with tub-ground forage and stored in bunker or bag

    • Have to have the “mix” right…


Minimum levels of roughage to mix in wdgs for storage
Minimum Levels of Roughage To Mix in WDGS For Storage Feeds

Bagginga Bunker

Grass hay 15% 30-40

Wheat straw 12.5 25-32

Alfalfa hay 22.5 45-55?

DDGS 50 ---

ADMCGF 60 ---

a300 PSI.

Source: Erickson & Klopfenstein


Summary
Summary Feeds

  • Increased corn demand and prices

    • Implications for crop acres and land prices

    • Higher feed cost pressures feeder animal price

    • Biomass may reduce need for corn, but also reduce coproduct supply

  • Often coproducts will reduce ration cost

  • Limits on maximum inclusion rates in diets

  • Technical issues with storages and handling


Resources
Resources Feeds

  • http://beef.unl.edu

  • www.iowabeefcenter.org

  • http://www.ddgs.umn.edu/


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