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PART ONE EVOLUTION - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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PART ONE EVOLUTION. CHAPTER ONE DEFINING PUBLIC RELATIONS. Markers of Public Relations Growth. United States growth: 200,000 U.S. public relations professionals Employment growth increasing faster than average through the year 2010

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Markers of Public Relations Growth

United States growth:

  • 200,000 U.S. public relations professionals

  • Employment growth increasing faster than average through the year 2010

  • The amount of respect and public relations spending are correlated among Fortune 500 companies

Markers continued

  • Education growth:

    • 250 colleges and universities in the U.S. and

      overseas have public relations programs

Markers continued

  • Government growth:

  • U.S. government large employer of public relations practitioners

  • Includes: Army, Navy, Air Force, and the U.S. Information Agency

Markers continued

  • Professional Associations Growth

    • Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) has 20,000 members in 117 chapters

    • The International Association of Business Communicators (IABC) has 13,500 members in more than 58 countries.

Markers continued

  • International Association growth:

  • International Public Relations Association (IPRA) with membership in Latin America, Africa, Europe, and China

Public relations roots provide the foundation

  • “a democratic society where people have freedom to debate and make decisions—in the community, the marketplace, the home, the workplace, and the voting booth. Private and public organizations depend on good relations with groups and individuals whose opinions, decisions and actions affect their vitality and survival.”

What is Public Relations?

Defining the field

“Public relations is a planned process to influence public opinion, through sound character and proper performance, based on mutually satisfactory two-way communication.”

Defining the Field

  • Many definitions

    1975 commissioned study found 472 definitions reduced to an 88-word definition.

    1980 Task force offered two definitions

Public Relations definition by PRSA Task Force:

  • Public relations helps an organization and its publics adapt mutually to each other. Public relations is an organization’s efforts to win the cooperation of groups of people.

Marston’s Four Step Modelencompasses the process:

  • Research

  • Action

  • Communication

  • Evaluation



Two Elements that Guide the Process

  • Management

  • Action

Sharpe’s Five Principles

  • Honest communication

  • Openness and consistency

  • Fairness of actions

  • Two-way communication

  • Research and Evaluation

Public Relations professionalsserve as interpreters for the organization.

Let me show you the way……

Call out

Interpretation for management:

  • Philosophies, policies, programs, practices

  • Convey attitudes

  • Communicate truthfully and correctly

Interpretation to management:

  • Management has a need to know

    • What the public thinks about the organization and its practices

What recent events have occurred in which organizations were not interpreting public views?


  • Internal

  • External

  • Interdependence

  • Networks

  • Systems


  • Key groups

  • Classification system based on

    • Issue, organization, viewpoint, time,

    • Interest, location, values, lifestyle, relationship

Who makes up the publics at your college or university?

  • Clue: Break it down

Why are publics important to organizations?

  • Clue: To know them is to please them.

Public relations, marketing and advertising….aren’t they all the same?

Marketing and advertising promotes a product or service

Public relations promotes the entire organization.


Media relations





Marketing Communications

Community relations

Consumer relations

Employee relations

Government affairs

Investor relations

Special public relations

Public affairs & issues management

Web site development and interface

Functions of Public Relations

Spin versus Public Relations

  • Differences

  • Issues

  • Implications

How do you answer when someone says public relations equals spin doctors?

  • Clue:


Competent Practitioners

  • Do you have the right stuff?

    • Academic background

    • Technical skills

    • Personal characteristics

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