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A Coevolution Scheme for Supermassive Black Holes and Galactic Bulges. Masayuki UMEMURA Center for Computational Physics, University of Tsukuba, Japan. Collaborators Nozomu KAWAKATSU Masao MORI Jun’ichi SATO. Black Hole-Bulge Correlation. 1. BH-Bulge Mass Relation

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slide1

A Coevolution Scheme for Supermassive

Black Holes and Galactic Bulges

Masayuki UMEMURA

Center for Computational Physics, University of Tsukuba, Japan

Collaborators

Nozomu KAWAKATSU

Masao MORI

Jun’ichi SATO

slide2

Black Hole-Bulge Correlation

1.

BH-Bulge Mass Relation

 MBH /Mbulge  0.001

(Kormendy & Richstone 1995; Richstone 1995; Magorrian et al. 1998;

Merrifield et al. 2000; Kormendy 2000; Merritt & Ferrarese 2001)

 MBHMbulge1.53

MBH /Mbulge  0.005(MV-22) ; MBH /Mbulge  0.0005 (MV-18)

(Laor 2001)

MBH- Relation

MBH, =4.72 (Ferrarese & Merritt 2000; Merrit & Ferrarese 2000)

MBH, =3.75 (Gebhardt et al. 2000)

MBH, =4.02±0.32 (Tremaine et al. 2002)

MBH /Mdisk  0.005 for Disk component (Salucci et al. 2000; Sarzi et al. 2000)

2.

3.

slide3

Why does SMBH mass linearly correlate with bulge mass ?

What is the basic physics to determine

MBH /Mbulge  O(10-3)?

Present Prediction

( = 0.007 : H  He nuclear fusion energy

conversion efficiency)

Richstone 1995

slide4

Angular Momentum

Extraction

Relativistic Radiation Hydrodynamics

(Umemura et al. 1997; Fukue et al. 1997; Umemura et al. 1998)

e.g. Poynting-Robertson effect

in solar system

slide5

Momentum loss

Sato & Umemura, in preparation

radiation field

velocity

cold gas

slide6

SMBH Formation by Radiation Drag in Bulge

Umemura, 2001, ApJ, 560, L29

Kawakatsu & Umemura, 2002, MNRAS, 329, 572

Angular Momentum Extraction

Bulge

L*

photon number

conservation

(: optical depth by dust)

R

Mass Accretion Rate

MDO

(Massive Dark Object)

slide7

Optically-Thick Regime

Mass Accretion Rate

Radiation Drag Time-Scale

Mass of MDO

slide8

Mass Accretion by Radiation Drag

MDO-Bulge Mass Ratio

( = 0.007,  = net stellar conversion eficiency)

slide9

BH Growth

Radiation Drag Growth

M

L=LEdd

MMDO

Eddington Growth

MBH

t

tcross

slide11

Rees Diagram

(1984)

radiation drag

slide13

MBH- Relation

Present Prediction

Tremaine et al. 2002

slide14

Why small BHs in disks?

 Disks without AGNs

 Sy1s

 Sy2s

 NLSy1s

0.03

0.1

1

Kawakatu & Umemura 2003

submitted to ApJ

slide15

Geometrical Dilution of Radiation Fields

Elliptical Galaxies

Disk Galaxies

low drag efficiency

high drag efficiency

slide16

Sy1

with

Starburst

 NLS1s

Sy2 with starburst

 Disks

without AGNs

 Sy1s

 Sy2s

 NLSy1s

Present Prediction

0.03

0.1

1

slide17

Coevolution of SMBHs and Bulges

 SMBHs have been thought to be the central engine of AGNs.

z=6.3 QSO  tBH109yr

 QSO hosts are mostly luminous, well evolved elliptical galaxies.

 Recently, the demography of galactic centers have shown a

tight correlation between SMBHs and galactic bulges.

The formation and evolution of SMBH, bulge, and QSO are mutually related.

slide18

Mbulge(star)

MBH

MMDO

L*

ULIRG

QSO

LLAGN

>1

<1

LAGN

tw

tcross(109-10yr)

t

• There is time delay between L* and LAGN. LAGN/L* increases until tcross .

• LAGN is peaked around tcross.(QSO phase)

• MBH /Mbulge increases with LAGN or age until tcross .

slide19

Radiation Hydrodynamic Growth of BH via Radiation Drag

+

Chemical Evolution of Bulge

PEGASE(Foic & Rocca-Volmerange 1997)

Evolutionary spectral synthesis code

Kawakatu, Umemura & Mori, 2003, ApJ, 583, 85

slide20

Optical Depth Evolution

Galactic wind

100

10

U

B

1

V



K

0.1

0.01

0.001

Time [yr]

slide21

Luminosity Evolution

>1

<1

Galactic wind

Luminosity [L]

LLAGN

ULIRG

QSO

Proto-QSO

Time [yr]

• LAGN /Lbulgeexhibits a AGN-dominant peak around 109yr. (QSO phase)

• QSO phase is preceded by an optically thin, host-dominant “proto-QSO” phase.

• Proto-QSO phase is preceded by an optically thick, host-dominant phase. (ULIRGs)

slide22

Emission Line Width

(Kaspi et al.1997; Loar et al. 1997; Peterson et al. 2000)

5000

<1

>1

1500

1000

vBLR[km/s]

ULIRG

LLAGN

QSO

Proto-QSO

100

Time [yr]

 In Proto-QSO phase, the width of broad emission lines is less than 1500km/s.

Proto-QSO = NLQSO1 = Growing BH phase

slide23

“ACoevolution Scheme for SMBHs and Galactic Bulges“

Proto-QSO

QSO

LBG

ULIRG

LLAGN

<1

<1

>1

<1

<1

Bulge

enshrouded BH

Type 2 QSO

Nucleus

10-100 pc

growing BH

time

slide24

Summary on BH Formation

• MBH /Mbulge  0.14  =0.001: Radiation drag growth

(key physics: =0.007)

• MBH - Relation: CDM spectrum

• MBH /Mbulge  0.005 for Disks: Geometrical dilution

slide25

Summary on Coevolution

• LAGN /Lbulgeexhibits a AGN-dominant peak around 109yr. (QSO phase)

MBH /Mbulge  10-4-10-3 in QSO phase (key physics:  = 0.007)

• QSO phase is preceded by a host-dominant “proto-QSO” phase.

MBH /Mbulge < 10-5 -10-4 in proto-QSO (growing BH phase)

Proto-QSOs are narrow line QSOs.

Their properties are similar to those of high redshift radio galaxies.

• Proto-QSO phase is preceded by an optically thick, host-dominant phase. (ULIRGs)

slide26

Thank you

for attention

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