Honors chemistry chapter 4
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Honors Chemistry Chapter 4. The Structure of the Atom. Early Theories of Matter. Atomic Theory Democritus Dalton. Dalton’s Atomic Theory. Based on experimental results Matter consists of atoms All the atoms of an element are alike

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Honors Chemistry Chapter 4

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Honors chemistry chapter 4

Honors Chemistry Chapter 4

The Structure of the Atom


Early theories of matter

Early Theories of Matter

  • Atomic Theory

    • Democritus

    • Dalton


Dalton s atomic theory

Dalton’s Atomic Theory

  • Based on experimental results

  • Matter consists of atoms

  • All the atoms of an element are alike

  • Atoms of one element differ from atoms of other elements

  • Atoms are indestructible and only rearranged during chemical reactions


Honors chemistry chapter 4

  • Atoms can combine in simple, whole-number ratios to form compounds

  • Pg. 102


Discovery of the electron

Discovery of the electron

  • Cathode ray tube (Crooke’s tube)

  • Pg. 105 picture

  • Cathode rays

    • Particles with negative charge


Honors chemistry chapter 4

  • JJ Thompson

  • Used cathode ray tube to determine charge/mass ratio of particles

  • Identified the particles as electrons


Robert millikan

Robert Millikan

  • Calculated the charge and mass of an electron

  • “Oil drop” experiment

  • Electron carries exactly one unit of negative charge

  • Mass is 1/1840 the mass of a hydrogen atom


Honors chemistry chapter 4

  • Each electron carries one unit of negative charge

  • Proposed “plum pudding” model of the atom

  • “chocolate chip cookie” model

  • Electrons stuck in positive “dough”


Rutherford s gold foil experiment

Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment

  • pg. 107


Important results

IMPORTANT RESULTS!!!!

  • New atomic model

    • Atom mostly empty space

    • Tiny, dense central core – nucleus


Honors chemistry chapter 4

  • Rutherford's gold foil experiment


Honors chemistry chapter 4

  • Contains all the atoms positive charge

  • Volume of space in which the electrons move huge compared to volume of the nucleus


Honors chemistry chapter 4

  • Book analogy:

  • If an atom had a diameter of 2 football fields, the nucleus would be the size of a nickel!


Don t you wish you were here right now

Don’t you wish you were here right now?


Honors chemistry chapter 4

  • WELL YOU’RE NOT – SO PAY ATTENTION!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


Honors chemistry chapter 4

  • Atomic Theory song!!!


Nucleons particles located within the nucleus

NUCLEONS – particles located within the nucleus

  • Protons and neutrons

  • Protons

    • Positive charge

    • Mass of 1 amu (atomic mass unit)


Honors chemistry chapter 4

  • Neutrons

    • No charge (neutral)

    • Mass = 1 amu


Electrons

Electrons

  • Located outside the nucleus in “shells”

  • Each carries one unit of negative charge

  • Mass 1/1840 amu

  • Pg. 106 chart for subatomic particles


Atomic number

Atomic number

  • Number of protons in the nucleus

  • Identifies the atom as an atom of a particular element

  • Determines its position on the Periodic Table

  • Atomic # = #protons = #electrons


Mass number

MASS NUMBER

  • Number of protons + number of neutrons

  • Number of neutrons =

    mass number – atomic number

    Isotopes


Isotope notation

Isotope Notation

  • Pg. 112 Sample and practice


Average atomic mass

Average atomic mass

  • Weighted average of the naturally occurring isotopes of that element

  • Is a decimal because of the existence of isotopes

  • Pg. 114 Table 4.3

  • Pg. 116-117 #21-24

  • Video: How to Calculate an Average Atomic Weight.


Periodic table

Periodic Table

  • Arrangement of elements where the elements are separated into groups bases on a set of repeating properties

  • Can compare properties of elements based on their position on the table


Honors chemistry chapter 4

  • Arranged according to increasing atomic number

  • Horizontal rows – periods

  • Vertical columns – groups (families)

    • Elements within a group have similar chemical and physical properties


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