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Information Architecture. Week 5. Agenda. Presentations SILVAS, Metaphors in Web Design and Navigation MASON, Taxonomies & Classification for Organizing Content Project Plan Review Lecture – Contextual design Class Work: User Analysis. Thesauri, Vocabularies & Metadata.

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Information architecture l.jpg

Information Architecture

Week 5


Agenda l.jpg

Agenda

  • Presentations

  • SILVAS, Metaphors in Web Design and Navigation

  • MASON, Taxonomies & Classification for Organizing Content

    • Project Plan Review

    • Lecture – Contextual design

    • Class Work: User Analysis


  • Thesauri vocabularies metadata l.jpg

    Thesauri, Vocabularies & Metadata

    • The Structure of Your Content (Part of the Plan)

    • Models the Information for the User (Content Modeling)


    What do we mean by metadata l.jpg

    What do we mean by Metadata?

    • “…descriptive information about the context, quality and condition, or characteristics…”

    • What are some examples of metadata?

    • Tags are used to describe

    • documents

    • pages

    • images

    • software

    • video and audio files

    • other content objects

    • Why?

    • Improved navigation and retrieval


    Controlled vocabularies l.jpg

    Controlled Vocabularies

    • Establish Consistencies

      • For the Content & Developers

      • Education for the user - shaping behavior

  • Just Synonyms?

    • Lists of Equivalents (Index)

    • Aliases (Authority File)

  • “Synonym Ring”

    • Based on User’s Understanding

    • Improved Upon by IA

    • Iterative Process to Discover Alternate Words & Concepts


  • Building your authority file l.jpg

    Building Your “Authority File”

    • List of preferred terms or acceptable values p180

    • The Mission Statement for your Content

      • Acronyms, Abbreviations

      • Multiple terms (“term rotation”?)

      • Cases (Upper, Lower and Mixed)

      • Labels for Button & Graphics too

    • Use a Central File to Keep Current

      • Authority.txt

  • Keep updated throughout the project


  • Classification schemes l.jpg

    Classification Schemes

    • A hierarchical arrangement of preferred terms

    • Taxonomies are both visible and invisible to the user

      • Front End

        • Users (Personalized)

        • Interface (Browse)

      • Back End

        • Information Architecture

        • Content Management

        • System (Search)

      • Approaches

        • Top-Down & Bottom-Up

        • Content & Task


    Semantic relationships l.jpg

    Semantic Relationships

    • Equivalence

    • Hierarchical

      • Strong (Inherited)

        • City - Austin

      • Instance (Classes)

        • Texas - Austin

    • Associative

      • Based on Understanding of Content & user


    Thesaurus in action l.jpg

    Thesaurus in Action

    • Preferred Term

    • Variant Term (synonyms)

    • Broader Term (preferred’s parent)

    • Narrower Term (preferred’s child)

    • Related (“see also”, synonyms)

    • Use (rules for where and when)

    • Scope (restricts meaning)


    Faceted classification l.jpg

    Faceted Classification

    • “How do I describe this?” -Ranganathan

    • Multiple Dimensions

    • Now More Applicable to Digital Information

      • Personality, Matter, Energy, Space, Time

      • Topic, Product, Document Type, Audience, Geography, Price


    Taxonomy of decisions actions l.jpg

    Taxonomy of Decisions & Actions

    • Purpose of the Search

    • Method to Find Information

    • Content of the Information Being Searched

    • GVU Survey Question

      • Recent instance of important information found

    • Taxonomic Analysis of Responses from Survey

      • Morrison et al 2001


    Taxonomy of decisions actions cont d l.jpg

    Taxonomy of Decisions & Actions (cont’d)

    Method

    • Purpose

    Content

    • Morrison et al 2001


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    Chapter 10 - Research


    Some context l.jpg

    Some Context

    • Myths of Technology Design

    • People can tell you exactly what they want.

    • The use of technology requires a lot of training,

    • manuals, and support.

      Facts of Technology

    • Improving the user experience takes more than:

    • simply asking the user

    • introspection


    What s happening here l.jpg

    What’s Happening Here?

    What is the user doing?

    What is the system doing?


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    A Mismatch in Models

    • The user’s mental or conceptual model of the task and how it is executed does not match the system’s implementation model

    Implementation

    model

    Versus

    Mental

    model


    User s model vs engineer s model l.jpg

    User’s Model vs. Engineer’s Model

    • What user (thinks he/she) is doing

    • vs.

    • Actual Implementation

    • These issues are addressed by two types of design

    • User Centered Design

    • Focus on the user’s conceptual model

      • Participatory Design

      • Human-Centered Design

    • System Centered Design

    • Code-level organization and functionality of the system

    • “software engineering”


    Slide18 l.jpg

    User Centered Design

    System Centered Design

    Implementation

    model

    Versus

    Mental

    model


    Imagine l.jpg

    Imagine….

    • You are on a seasoned design team

    • Several members with skill sets both unique and overlapping

    • You handle problems from all kinds of domains

    • Often you have little prior exposure to the design problem

    • Your team has an incredible track record

    • How are you able to consistently perform?

    PROCESS


    Contextual design l.jpg

    Contextual Design

    Starts with the recognition that any system embodies a way of working.

    A system's function and structure forces particular strategies, language, and work flow on its users.

    Successful systems offer a way of working that customers want to adopt.

    Contextual Design is a method which helps a cross-functional team come to agreement on what their customers need and how to design a system for them.


    Contextual design21 l.jpg

    Contextual Design

    Gather data from multiple users

    Abstract data into a common model

    Design depends on seeing the implications of the data

    Design begins with a creative leap from customer data to implications for design and from implications to ideas for specific features


    Steps in contextual design l.jpg

    Steps in Contextual Design

    Contextual Inquiry

    Work Modeling

    Consolidation

    Visioning

    User Environment Design

    Interface Design and Prototyping


    The process in full l.jpg

    The Process in Full


    Contextual inquiry finding the real experts l.jpg

    Contextual Inquiry – finding “the real experts”

    Gather Data

    • Observation

    • Interview

    • Participation

    • “Shadowing”

      Learn User’s Vocabulary

      Gather Artifacts

      Gain an understanding of the user

      HEY LOOK AT ALL THE DATA WE HAVE!

      what are we gonna do with it?


    Work modeling l.jpg

    Work Modeling

    Organize the data

    Create shared understanding and group memory

    Working on the Wall

    • Everyone participates

    • Everyone contributes

    • Build consensus

    • Models/data always up

    • Immersion in the data


    Work modeling types of models l.jpg

    Work Modeling – Types of Models

    Flow Model

    Communication & Coordination

    Sequence Model

    Detailed work steps

    Artifact Model

    Physical elements created to support work

    Cultural Model

    Constraints created by policy, culture, values

    Physical Model

    Physical structure of work environment


    Flow model communication coordination l.jpg

    Flow Model - Communication & Coordination

    How people’s roles are defined and how they communicate/coordinate

    Pattern of work - Relationships rather than sequence

    Elements

    Individuals

    • Person or group, annotated with the roles they play (interviewee is noted with a number & title)

    • Bubbles

      Responsibilities

    • List of expectations

    • Placed in bubble

      Flow

    • Communication

    • Arrows


    Flow model communication coordination28 l.jpg

    Flow Model - Communication & Coordination

    Elements (cont’d)

    Artifacts

    • Items created to support the work

    • Boxes on flow

      Communication topic

    • Details of flow

    • Listed on arrows

      Places

    • Areas where work gets done. Shown only when it is central to the flow

    • Large Box annotated with name and activity

      Breakdowns

    • Problems on flow

    • Large Lightning Bolt


    Example of a flow model l.jpg

    Example of a Flow Model


    Sequence model detailed work steps l.jpg

    Sequence Model - Detailed work steps

    Steps by which work is done, triggers that activate steps, and goals

    • Pattern of work

      Elements

    • Intent – Expectations of sequence

    • Trigger – What activates the sequence

    • Steps – Actions taken

    • Order – Arrows, loops, branches, connecting steps

    • Breakdowns – Problems in performing the steps


    Artifact model physical elements supporting work l.jpg

    Artifact Model - Physical elements supporting work

    Artifacts are items used to support the work. They have structure, content, usage, and intent

    • An artifact model is a drawing, photocopy, or actual artifact annotated with details

      Elements

    • Information – Content

    • Parts – Which are distinct in their usage

    • Structure – of parts, explicit and implicit

    • Annotations – of informal usage

    • Presentation – form of content when it is integral to function

    • Usage – when is it created, how it is used, how people move through its parts

    • Breakdowns – Problems in using the artifact


    Example of artifact model l.jpg

    Example of Artifact Model


    Cultural model constraints of policy culture values l.jpg

    Cultural model - Constraints of policy, culture, values

    “Cultural context is the mindset that people operate within and that plays a part in everything they do” p.108

    • Defines expectations, desires, and values

    • Written and unwritten policies

      Elements

    • Influences

      affect and constrain work (Bubbles)

    • Extent

      the effect on the work (Bubble overlap)

    • Influence

      direction of influence (Arrows)


    Example of cultural model l.jpg

    Example of Cultural Model


    Physical model physical structure of work environment l.jpg

    Physical Model - Physical structure of work environment

    Elements

    • Places where work is done

    • Structures that define spaces

    • Usage and movement within the space

    • Communication lines

    • Layout of artifacts/tools


    Consolidation l.jpg

    Consolidation

    Look across multiple users

    • Common practices

    • Divergent practices

      Going from a few to a large population

    Inductive Process

    Individuals

    Whole User

    Population


    The consolidation process l.jpg

    The Consolidation Process

    • For each model (flow, sequence, artifact, physical, & cultural):

      • Review model

      • Ask what is important about this model?

      • What current manual roles, tasks, steps, communication flows might better be automated?

      • What successful manual approaches can be used as a metaphor for design? (e.g., paper memory aids)

      • What breakdowns might be remedied?


    Consolidation the affinity diagram l.jpg

    Consolidation – The Affinity Diagram

    Organizes individual notes into a hierarchy of common issues

    How-To

    • In a group session each member has their field notes and a pad of post-its

    • One note is put-up and others look for similar notes that seem to go with it

    • Interview notes are placed together if they have an “affinity” – similar issues, intent, problems

    • Notes are given a group name that states the issue which binds them together

    SPONSORED BY 3M Corporation


    Example of an affinity diagram l.jpg

    Example of An Affinity Diagram

    • Trip Totem Project


    Consolidation the affinity diagram40 l.jpg

    Consolidation – The Affinity Diagram


    Creating the vision l.jpg

    Creating the Vision

    • “Grounded Brainstorming”

      • Brainstorming because ideas are not evaluated & should flow freely

      • “Grounded” because ideas are driven by the data on customers’ work practices

      • Draw ideas on flip chart as team throws them out

    • Use ideas from “starting points”

    • Incorporate each idea into a coherent story for a redesigned work process

    • Create in the form of diagram, much like the flow model, but revised with new artifacts, communication processes, strategies


    User environment design l.jpg

    User Environment Design

    Create an explicit representation of the system work model

    An Abstract "floor plan" of the new system

    Shows each part of the system –

    • "rooms" that offer certain functionality

    • how each supports the user’s work

    • links between the rooms describing their relationships

      NOT tied to any particular user interface

    • supports roll out sequential rollout of features

    • supports development across multiple implementation teams

      Easily translated into a blueprint or site plan, developed into a prototype and tested


    Example of a ued l.jpg

    Example of a UED


    An alternative technique personas l.jpg

    An alternative technique - Personas

    • A user archetype used to guide decisions about product features

    • By designing for the archetype—whose goals and behavior patterns are well understood—you can satisfy the broader group of people represented by that archetype.

    • In most cases, personas are synthesized from a series of ethnographic interviews with real people, then captured in 1-2 page descriptions that include behavior patterns, goals, skills, attitudes, and environment, with a few fictional personal details to bring the persona to life.

    • For each product, or sometimes for each set of tools within a product, there is a small set of personas, one of whom is the primary focus for the design.


    Rapid ethnography l.jpg

    Rapid Ethnography

    • Person-centered field work

    • done in natural settings

    • holistic, observing the complete context

    • perspective of the consumer

    • Like Rapid Prototyping, Usability Inspection & Discount Usability

    • Ethnography

      • People (Practice)

      • Environments (Native)

      • Activities (Context)

    • Cultural Observation and Analysis

    • Elicit User Requirements

      • Millen 2000


    Rapid ethnography pt 2 l.jpg

    Rapid Ethnography pt. 2

    • Narrow FocusShort Studies

    • Comparisons to Other Studies

    • Zoom in On Key Activities

    • Multiple Datasets (Critical Incidents)

      • Observations

      • Recording

      • Activity Walkthroughs

      • Interviews (Structured)

    • Selection of Instances that Yield Incidents

      • Key Times

      • Key Users


    Rapid ethnography pt 3 l.jpg

    Rapid Ethnography pt. 3

    • Automated Data Analysis

    • Team Data Analysis

    • Scenario Analysis (storyboards)

    • Pictorial Storytelling (metaphors)

    • Lightweight Deliverables

      • Drawings (Sketches)

      • Notes (not Reports)

      • Incomplete

      • Prototypes

    • Cognitive Mapping (assumptive)

    • Substitute for Full or Complete Studies


    Class work who will use the site l.jpg

    Class Work: Who Will Use the Site?

    • Who are your target users?

    • What do you want users to get from your site?

    • Is the site a Searching site?

    • A Browsing and Learning site?


    Home work user analysis l.jpg

    Home Work: User Analysis

    • Rapid Ethnography – go find some of those users

    • What do your users have in common?

    • What are their differences?

    • What design decisions need to be specifically planned for as essential for your users?

    • What will the information on your site be used for?


    For next week l.jpg

    For Next Week

    • Presentations

    • TSE, User IA – blogs, RSS and WIKIs

    • FOGLE, IA & Web Advertising

    • WHITWORTH, Navigation & menus

    • MCDAVID, Search Pages and Results

    • Rosenfeld, Information Architecture: Chapters 7 & 8

    • Choo, C. W., Detlor, B., & Turnbull, D. (2000). Information Seeking on the Web: An Integrated Model of Browsing and Searching. First Monday, 5(2).

    • Tauscher, L. M., & Greenberg, S. (1997). Revisitation patterns in World Wide Web navigation. Paper presented at the ACM SIGCHI '97, Atlanta, GA.

    • Site Concept Deliverable


    Site concept deliverable for next week l.jpg

    Site Concept Deliverable For Next Week

    • Sitemap diagram of your proposed project

      • One page, printed

    • User Research Document

      • One page, printed

      • What did you do?

      • Who did you find?

      • What did you learn?

    • User model (scenario starter)

      • One page, printed

        • What the site is about

        • In two sentences (at most)

      • Briefly describe

        • Who will use the site

        • Why?

        • When?


    Backup l.jpg

    Backup


    Human information behavior l.jpg

    Human Information Behavior

    • Information Behavior – The totality of our interaction with information

    • Information Seeking – Purposive and as a consequence of need

    • Information Searching – Thought and action surrounding the interaction with info systems

    • Information Use -

      • Physical Actions – highlighting, bookmarking

      • Mental Actions – consideration of conflicting information

        • Wilson 2001


    New models of info behavior global model l.jpg

    New Models of Info Behavior – Global Model


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