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Carrier Controls. Demand Controlled Ventilation. Comfort = Temperature + Ventilation. Ventilation Control. Comfort Is More Than Just The Right Temperature…. Why Ventilation?. Ventilation Control. Why Ventilation?. Comfort Health & Safety Compliance. Ventilation Provides.

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Carrier controls

Carrier Controls

  • Demand Controlled Ventilation


Comfort is more than just the right temperature

Comfort =

Temperature + Ventilation

Ventilation Control

Comfort Is More Than Just The Right Temperature…

Why Ventilation?


Carrier controls

Ventilation Control

Why Ventilation?


Ventilation provides

Comfort

Health & Safety

Compliance

Ventilation Provides

Ventilation Control


How is ventilation provided in most buildings today

How is ventilation provided in most buildings today?

Ventilation Control

The same way it was in 1930.

With Fixed Ventilation!


Carrier controls

Ventilation Control

Fixed Ventilation

Building codes require ventilation rates based on cfm/person: (typically 20 cfm/person)

Max Occupancy: 25 people = 500cfm

Actual Occupancy: 1 person = 500cfm

Actual Occupancy: 5 people = 500cfm

Inefficient!


Total building heating and cooling costs

Total Building Heating and Cooling Costs

Ventilation Control

Ventilation


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Fixed Ventilation In a Multi-Zoned Building

Ventilation Control

Total cfm = Max occupants X 20 cfm

There Is No Control!


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Ventilation Control

Is There A Better Way?


Temperature control in a multi zoned building

Temperature Sensor

Temperature + Ventilation Sensor

Temperature Control In A Multi-Zoned Building

Ventilation Control

  • Measure In Each Zone

  • Control Based On Actual Load

What if we did the same thing with ventilation?


Carrier controls

Zone Ventilation Control

Great Idea!

Delivers

The RIGHT Amount of Fresh Air,

To The RIGHT Place,

At The RIGHT Time…

But How Does It Work?


Carrier controls

Zone Ventilation Control

ASHRAE 62.1 & 90.1

ASTM CO2 &

Ventilation Standard

Controlling Ventilation

  • There is a clearly defined relationship between indoor CO2 levels & ventilation rates established by:

  • Indoor CO2 levels are a measure of ventilation

  • rates (cfm/person)

CO2 is the control parameter for ventilation!


Carrier controls

Zone Ventilation Control

Single Zone Ventilation

Actual Occupancy 1 person = 20cfm

Actual Occupancy 5 people = 100cfm

Actual Occupancy 25 people = 500cfm

Ventilation based on actual occupancy!


Multi zoned ventilation control in a building

Zone Ventilation Control

Multi Zoned Ventilation Control In a Building

Healthy & Efficient!


Carrier controls

Zone Ventilation Control

OK!

But How Does Carrier Do It?


Carrier controls

Carrier DCV

PremierLink

The innovative DDC control system that automatically gives you the ventilation you need only when you really need it, with a thermostat or network.

Comfort System

Rooftop Controller


Carrier controls

CO2

(People Meters)

Carrier DCV

PremierLink

Individual sensors throughout the building work together to identify and immediately respond to changing needs for total comfort control.

Here’s how it works…


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Carrier DCV

PremierLink

As certain areas become occupied, the PremierLink identifies the changing temperature load as well as the change in ventilation requirements.


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Carrier DCV

PremierLink

Outside air dampers are utilized only as deemed necessary by actual occupant CO2 levels (rather than maximum assumed levels), thus reducing energy consumption by the HVAC system.


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Carrier DCV

Timeline

VAV

CO2

1916

Mechanical Engineers Handbook

Explains relationship between CO2 and ventilation

1929

NY Building code details CO2 levels shall not be greater than one part in one thousand

1973

Energy crunch introduce VAV system for commercial buildings

1989

ASHRAE Standard 62-89 sets 1000 PPM maximum

1997

Interpretation IC-62-1989-27 clarifies use of CO2 as a method of controlling ventilation based on occupancy

1999

ASHRAE 62-99 eliminates 1000 PPM CO2 threshold inside/outside differential introduced

1999

ComfortID introduced zone level DCV

2000

Carrier introduces low cost temp/CO2 sensor


Understanding co 2

Understanding CO2

Carrier DCV

People exhale CO2 at concentrations of 4% (40,000 ppm)

Normal room concentrations are in the range of 400 - 1200 ppm

As a gas, CO2 diffuses

and equalizes rapidly throughout a room


Co 2 equilibrium levels

CO2 Equilibrium Levels

Carrier DCV

CO2 levels will build until an equilibrium level is reached with outside air entering the space

5 cfm/person

10 cfm/person

15 cfm/person

20 cfm/person

30 cfm/person


Carrier controls

Carrier DCV

PremierLink Ventilation Savings

This chart compares ventilation usage throughout a typical day using purple to represent “demand controlled” and green to represent “constant.” The difference between the two equates to significant savings.


Co2 plus temp sensor

Patented

NDIR Technology

Micro Based

Self Calibration

Push Button

Calibration

Removable

Terminal Strips

RJ-14 for CCN

Connection

Night Setback

Override

Thermistor

Slide Pot

Option

Sensor

Technology

CO2 Plus Temp Sensor

First Cost Effective Zone Level CO2 + Temp Sensor


Ndir gas sensing

Sensor

Technology

NDIR Gas Sensing

IR Detector

Target gas absorbs radiation at signature wavelength

Filter isolates wavelength that reaches detector

More gas in chamber leads to lower signal to detector

IR Source

0 ppm CO2

Wavelength

Filter

IR Detector

IR Source

1000 ppm CO2

Wavelength

Filter

IR Detector

IR Source

2000 PPM CO2

Wavelength

Filter


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Advantages of IR Sensing

Custom Designed

Infrared Filter

Diffusion Membranes

Micro-Machined

Thermopile Detector

Incandescent

1.25"

Infrared Source

Patented Waveguide

Microprocessor

Sensor

Technology

Long life (15 years expected)

Selective - no interference with other gases

Stable - does not require calibration


Self calibration of a co 2 sensor

Automatic Baseline Calibration (ABC Logic)

Self calibrating algorithm

Considers lowest CO2 level every 24 hrs

Looks at long term changes in baseline

Applies a correction factor for calibration

Sensor

Technology

Self Calibration Of A CO2 Sensor


Carrier controls

Zone Ventilation Control

International Mechanical Code:

“Current technology (CO2 sensors) can permit the design of ventilation systems that are capable of detecting the occupant load of the space and automatically adjusting the ventilation rate accordingly.”

Model, State & Local Codes

CODE COMPLIANCE…

Accepted by: ASHRAE Standard 62

Can Be Measured & Documented!

Compliance Assured…


Numerous studies confirm that correct ventilation

Increases Productivity

Improves Occupant/Customer Satisfaction

Helps Prevent Sick Building Syndrome Health Affects

Zone Ventilation Control

Numerous Studies Confirm That Correct Ventilation ...

  • DOE/Lawrence Berkeley Labs

  • Indoor Environment In Schools

  • Pupils Health & Performance In Regard To CO2 Concentrations

    • A significant correlation was found between decreased performance and high CO2 levels (lower ventilation rates).

  • DOE/Lawrence Berkeley Labs Evaluation of

  • Sick Leave Statistics vs. Ventilation Rates

  • (3720 employees / 40 buildings):

    • Optimal ventilation reduces sick time costs. For every $1 spent to increase ventilation cost, $2 are saved in sick time

“Air Quality and Ventilation”

ranked very high (#2 of 25) on the list

of tenant retention issues

in a recent survey conducted by

Real Estate Information Systems.

  • Economic Considerations of

  • Air Quality and Ventilation in Offices (US EPA)

  • Improvements in the indoor air environment substantially increase employee moral and productivity.


Ensure for every zone

Comfort

Health & Safety

Compliance

Zone Ventilation Control

Ensure for every zone…


A better operating building

Ventilate to Actual vs. Assumed Occupancy

Eliminate Wasteful Over-Ventilation

Very Attractive ROI/Lower Operating Costs

Zone Ventilation Control

A Better Operating Building


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