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Carrier Controls. Demand Controlled Ventilation. Comfort = Temperature + Ventilation. Ventilation Control. Comfort Is More Than Just The Right Temperature…. Why Ventilation?. Ventilation Control. Why Ventilation?. Comfort Health & Safety Compliance. Ventilation Provides.

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Carrier controls

Carrier Controls

  • Demand Controlled Ventilation

Comfort is more than just the right temperature

Comfort =

Temperature + Ventilation

Ventilation Control

Comfort Is More Than Just The Right Temperature…

Why Ventilation?

Carrier controls

Ventilation Control

Why Ventilation?

Ventilation provides


Health & Safety


Ventilation Provides

Ventilation Control

How is ventilation provided in most buildings today

How is ventilation provided in most buildings today?

Ventilation Control

The same way it was in 1930.

With Fixed Ventilation!

Carrier controls

Ventilation Control

Fixed Ventilation

Building codes require ventilation rates based on cfm/person: (typically 20 cfm/person)

Max Occupancy: 25 people = 500cfm

Actual Occupancy: 1 person = 500cfm

Actual Occupancy: 5 people = 500cfm


Total building heating and cooling costs

Total Building Heating and Cooling Costs

Ventilation Control


Carrier controls

Fixed Ventilation In a Multi-Zoned Building

Ventilation Control

Total cfm = Max occupants X 20 cfm

There Is No Control!

Carrier controls

Ventilation Control

Is There A Better Way?

Temperature control in a multi zoned building

Temperature Sensor

Temperature + Ventilation Sensor

Temperature Control In A Multi-Zoned Building

Ventilation Control

  • Measure In Each Zone

  • Control Based On Actual Load

What if we did the same thing with ventilation?

Carrier controls

Zone Ventilation Control

Great Idea!


The RIGHT Amount of Fresh Air,

To The RIGHT Place,

At The RIGHT Time…

But How Does It Work?

Carrier controls

Zone Ventilation Control

ASHRAE 62.1 & 90.1


Ventilation Standard

Controlling Ventilation

  • There is a clearly defined relationship between indoor CO2 levels & ventilation rates established by:

  • Indoor CO2 levels are a measure of ventilation

  • rates (cfm/person)

CO2 is the control parameter for ventilation!

Carrier controls

Zone Ventilation Control

Single Zone Ventilation

Actual Occupancy 1 person = 20cfm

Actual Occupancy 5 people = 100cfm

Actual Occupancy 25 people = 500cfm

Ventilation based on actual occupancy!

Multi zoned ventilation control in a building

Zone Ventilation Control

Multi Zoned Ventilation Control In a Building

Healthy & Efficient!

Carrier controls

Zone Ventilation Control


But How Does Carrier Do It?

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Carrier DCV


The innovative DDC control system that automatically gives you the ventilation you need only when you really need it, with a thermostat or network.

Comfort System

Rooftop Controller

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(People Meters)

Carrier DCV


Individual sensors throughout the building work together to identify and immediately respond to changing needs for total comfort control.

Here’s how it works…

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Carrier DCV


As certain areas become occupied, the PremierLink identifies the changing temperature load as well as the change in ventilation requirements.

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Carrier DCV


Outside air dampers are utilized only as deemed necessary by actual occupant CO2 levels (rather than maximum assumed levels), thus reducing energy consumption by the HVAC system.

Carrier controls

Carrier DCV





Mechanical Engineers Handbook

Explains relationship between CO2 and ventilation


NY Building code details CO2 levels shall not be greater than one part in one thousand


Energy crunch introduce VAV system for commercial buildings


ASHRAE Standard 62-89 sets 1000 PPM maximum


Interpretation IC-62-1989-27 clarifies use of CO2 as a method of controlling ventilation based on occupancy


ASHRAE 62-99 eliminates 1000 PPM CO2 threshold inside/outside differential introduced


ComfortID introduced zone level DCV


Carrier introduces low cost temp/CO2 sensor

Understanding co 2

Understanding CO2

Carrier DCV

People exhale CO2 at concentrations of 4% (40,000 ppm)

Normal room concentrations are in the range of 400 - 1200 ppm

As a gas, CO2 diffuses

and equalizes rapidly throughout a room

Co 2 equilibrium levels

CO2 Equilibrium Levels

Carrier DCV

CO2 levels will build until an equilibrium level is reached with outside air entering the space

5 cfm/person

10 cfm/person

15 cfm/person

20 cfm/person

30 cfm/person

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Carrier DCV

PremierLink Ventilation Savings

This chart compares ventilation usage throughout a typical day using purple to represent “demand controlled” and green to represent “constant.” The difference between the two equates to significant savings.

Co2 plus temp sensor


NDIR Technology

Micro Based

Self Calibration

Push Button



Terminal Strips

RJ-14 for CCN


Night Setback



Slide Pot




CO2 Plus Temp Sensor

First Cost Effective Zone Level CO2 + Temp Sensor

Ndir gas sensing



NDIR Gas Sensing

IR Detector

Target gas absorbs radiation at signature wavelength

Filter isolates wavelength that reaches detector

More gas in chamber leads to lower signal to detector

IR Source

0 ppm CO2



IR Detector

IR Source

1000 ppm CO2



IR Detector

IR Source

2000 PPM CO2



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Advantages of IR Sensing

Custom Designed

Infrared Filter

Diffusion Membranes


Thermopile Detector



Infrared Source

Patented Waveguide




Long life (15 years expected)

Selective - no interference with other gases

Stable - does not require calibration

Self calibration of a co 2 sensor

Automatic Baseline Calibration (ABC Logic)

Self calibrating algorithm

Considers lowest CO2 level every 24 hrs

Looks at long term changes in baseline

Applies a correction factor for calibration



Self Calibration Of A CO2 Sensor

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Zone Ventilation Control

International Mechanical Code:

“Current technology (CO2 sensors) can permit the design of ventilation systems that are capable of detecting the occupant load of the space and automatically adjusting the ventilation rate accordingly.”

Model, State & Local Codes


Accepted by: ASHRAE Standard 62

Can Be Measured & Documented!

Compliance Assured…

Numerous studies confirm that correct ventilation

Increases Productivity

Improves Occupant/Customer Satisfaction

Helps Prevent Sick Building Syndrome Health Affects

Zone Ventilation Control

Numerous Studies Confirm That Correct Ventilation ...

  • DOE/Lawrence Berkeley Labs

  • Indoor Environment In Schools

  • Pupils Health & Performance In Regard To CO2 Concentrations

    • A significant correlation was found between decreased performance and high CO2 levels (lower ventilation rates).

  • DOE/Lawrence Berkeley Labs Evaluation of

  • Sick Leave Statistics vs. Ventilation Rates

  • (3720 employees / 40 buildings):

    • Optimal ventilation reduces sick time costs. For every $1 spent to increase ventilation cost, $2 are saved in sick time

“Air Quality and Ventilation”

ranked very high (#2 of 25) on the list

of tenant retention issues

in a recent survey conducted by

Real Estate Information Systems.

  • Economic Considerations of

  • Air Quality and Ventilation in Offices (US EPA)

  • Improvements in the indoor air environment substantially increase employee moral and productivity.

Ensure for every zone


Health & Safety


Zone Ventilation Control

Ensure for every zone…

A better operating building

Ventilate to Actual vs. Assumed Occupancy

Eliminate Wasteful Over-Ventilation

Very Attractive ROI/Lower Operating Costs

Zone Ventilation Control

A Better Operating Building

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