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Corn Growth Stages. Chad Lee, Ph.D. Grain Crops Extension Specialist University of Kentucky. All growth stages presented here are based on…. How a Corn Plant Develops, Special Report No. 48 Iowa State University Press $2.00

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Corn growth stages

Corn Growth Stages

Chad Lee, Ph.D.

Grain Crops Extension Specialist

University of Kentucky

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


All growth stages presented here are based on…

  • How a Corn Plant Develops, Special Report No. 48

  • Iowa State University Press

  • $2.00

    • Extension Distribution Center119 Printing and Publications BuildingIowa State UniversityAmes, Iowa 50011-3171

    • Telephone: (515) 294-5247Fax: (515) 294-2945

    • http://www.extension.iastate.edu/pubs/Order.html

The material in this presentation comes from Iowa State Special Report No. 48. This is an excellent resource for any producer or agronomist.

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


http://maize.agron.iastate.edu/corngrows.html#stages

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


* When staging a field of corn, each specific V or R stage is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.

http://maize.agron.iastate.edu/corngrows.html

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.


Development of Nodal Roots is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.

VE

How a Corn Plant Develops, Special Report No. 48, Iowa State University, 1998

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


V3 is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


Root hairs begin to form on Nodal Roots. is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.

Seminal Root growth has basically stopped.

V3

Growing point is below the soil surface.

Frosts on the surface will not kill the plants.

Freezing soil temps will kill the plant.

Flooding can kill plants.

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


V6 is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.

Tassel development has started.

Ear shoot formation has also started.

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


V6: is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage. Typically when lower leaves begin to tear off of stalk.

To be certain about V-stages beyond V6:

Split the entire stalk (from the tip to the roots)in half with a knife.

The first five nodes will be clustered near the bottom of the stalk and the 6th node will be very close to the soil line.

Count nodes above the 6th node to determine how many nodes are present.

The total number of nodes equals the V-stage of the plant.

For example 7 nodes = V7 corn.

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


Ear shoot. is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.

Nodal Root System is the primary root system for nutrients and water.

Growing point is above the ground.

V6

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


V6 is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.

Premature Tassel

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


V9 is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


Ear shoot. is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.

Ear shoot.

Ear shoot.

Growing point.

V9

Growth rate rapidly increases. Greater demand for nutrients and water.

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


V12 is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.

Both kernel size and kernel number are being determined.

Any limits on water or nutrients at this phase will drastically impact yields.

Earlier maturing hybrids will pass through this phase faster than later maturing hybrids.

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


V15 is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.

About 10-12 days from silking.

Entering the most critical stage for yield determination.

The plant is most sensitive to water and/or nutrient stress at this stage.

Irrigation- the 4 weeks around silking are the most critical.

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


V15 is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.

Ear shoots near the top of the plant are starting to out-grow ear shoots lower on the plant.

Lower part of plant

Upper part of plant

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


V18 is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


V18 is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.

Lower part of plant

Upper part of plant

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


V18 is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.

Lower part of plant

Upper part of plant

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


Vt tassle
VT - Tassle is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.

Occurs when last branch of tassel is visible but before silks emerge.

Most susceptible to hail damage at this stage.

Complete leaf loss at VT will result in little to no yield.

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


VT is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


Pollen shed
Pollen shed is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


R1 silking

Silks starting to emerge. is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.

R1 - Silking

N uptake is rapid.

P uptake is rapid.

K uptake is nearly complete.

Watch for corn borer feeding.

Moisture is needed for pollination.

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


R1 silking1

Cob material is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.

Premature kernel

R1 - Silking

Two to three days are required for all silks on an ear to be pollinated.

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


R2 blister

An miniature corn plant has started to develop within the premature kernel.

Ear size is nearly complete.

Fertilized silks are starting to dry out.

R2 - Blister

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


R3 milk
R3 - Milk premature kernel.

Kernels are becoming yellow on the outside.

Silks are dry.

Kernels are at 80% moisture.

Stress becomes less of a factor as kernels start to dry down.

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


R4 dough
R4 - Dough premature kernel.

Fluid in the kernel is becoming a consistency similar to dough. (70% moisture)

Almost ½ of the dry weight has been accumulated.

Five embryonic leaves have formed in the kernel.

These will be the first five leaves of a new plant as it emerges next year.

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


R5 dent
R5 - Dent premature kernel.

Most of the kernels have dented on the top.

Most kernels are about 55% moisture at the start of R5.

A starch layer has formed and begins to progress down the kernel.

A frost will stop dry matter accumulation and reduce yields.

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


R6 physiological maturity

Blacklayer premature kernel.

R6 – Physiological Maturity

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


R6 physiological maturity1
R6 – Physiological Maturity premature kernel.

Kernel is about 30 – 35% moisture.

Kernels need to be at 13 to 15 % moisture for safe storage.

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


* When staging a field of corn, each specific V or R stage is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.

http://maize.agron.iastate.edu/corngrows.html

Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky


Grain Crops Extension, University of Kentucky is defined only when 50 percent or more of the plants in the field are in or beyond that stage.


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