Chapter 2 european colonies in america
1 / 29

Chapter 2: European Colonies in America - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Chapter 2: European Colonies in America.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

Download Presentation

Chapter 2: European Colonies in America

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript

Chapter 2: European Colonies in America

The Big Picture: Following Columbus’ voyages, European nations competed to establish colonies in the Americas. By 1733 the English had founded a diverse group of colonies along the Atlantic Ocean seaboard. Their efforts, however, had disastrous consequences for the Native Americans.

Chapter 2 Section 1: European Settlements in North America

Main Idea: In the 1500s and 1600s, European nations led by Spain, continued to explore, claim territory, and build settlements in America.

Spanish Conquistadors

  • 1494: Catholic Spain and Portugal appeal to the Pope to resolve competing claims to the New World

  • theTreaty of Tordesillas: drew a line on the map and gave all land to the west of the line to Spain and all land east to Portugal

    Ponce de Leon & Florida

  • Spanish explorers called conquistadors began exploring the Caribbean, South, and Central America after Columbus

  • Their goals were “God, gold, glory”

  • Ponce de Leon sailed with Columbus, was governor of Puerto Rico, and searched for the fabled fountain of youth

  • He became the first Spanish explorer in mainland North America when he claimed Florida for Spain

    Cortez and the Aztec

  • Cortez claimed and explored Mexico in an attempt to find gold

  • When attempting to conquer the Aztec, he was aided by the enemies of the Aztec and an ancient legend that made them believe the Spanish were messengers from the Gods

  • The Aztec fell to the Spanish in 1521

Golden Cities and other Explorers

  • The successful domination of the Aztec and persistent rumors of cities of gold encouraged other explorers to push into modern-day Mexico, Texas, and Florida

  • Explorers like de Soto, Cabrillo and de Coronado explored as far north as Tennessee and as far west as California, but did not find the gold they wanted

  • Eventually the Spanish focused on mining in Mexico

  • 1565: Spanish establish a colony at St. Augustine, Florida

  • It is the oldest city in the US today

Spain Builds an Empire

Social Structure

  • Spanish crown appointed viceroyalty to run new colonies that were being established

  • Social classes in the colonies emerged; peninsulares (those born in Spain) felt they were superior to creoles (pureblood Spanish born in the New World)

  • Under the creoles were those who mixed with Native Americans called mestizos, then Spanish and African, then pure-blood Indians, and Africans

  • Also key to Spanish American social structure were missionaries who served to convert natives to Catholicism and to teach the faithful

Land, Labor, and the Pueblo Revolt

  • Spanish established the encomienda system: Spanish received grants of land from the crown and the use of labor from the people who lived on the land

  • The Natives were expected to convert to Christianity and work for the new owner

  • The owner was expected to treat the natives humanely, but they were routinely enslaved and worked to death on plantations called haciendas

  • 1680: Pueblo Indians revolt against the Spanish led by Pope

  • He was successful in driving the Spanish out of Santa Fe, but in 1692 Spanish soldiers retook the area

Other Nations Explore

England’s Navy

  • 1497: John Cabot arrives in Newfoundland & thinks he is in Asia; claims it for England

  • 1500s- England realizes it is new land and begins looking for a northwest passage to Asia

  • 1577: Protestant Queen Elizabeth builds up the English navy to challenge Catholic Spain; Sir Francis Drake first to circumnavigate the globe

    New France

  • 1524: Giovanni de Verrazano explores from the Carolinas to Maine for France

  • 1534: Jacques Cartier discovers the St. Lawrence River and explores Quebec and Montreal

  • 1608: Samuel de Champlain establishes trade in furs and fish in Quebec

  • 1666: Sieur de la Salle explores Great Lakes region and Mississippi River, claiming the land for France (called it Louisiana for French king Louis XIV)

    New Netherland

  • 1609: Henry Hudson sent by the Netherlands to find the Northwest Passage

  • He discovers the Hudson River and claims land along the Atlantic coast for the Dutch

Chapter 2 Section 2: The English in Virginia

Main Idea: After several failures, the English established a permanent settlement at Jamestown, Virginia.

The First English Colonies


  • Queen Elizabeth allows Sir Walter Raleigh to lead an expedition the Atlantic Coast

  • He calls the land Virginia after her (“virgin queen”)

  • 1587 Raleigh and governor John White establish a colony at Roanoke Island and established friendly relations with Manteo

  • Virginia Dare first English born in the New World

  • White was forced to return to England for supplies and was delayed 3 years due to war with Spain in returning

  • 1590: White returns but all of the settlers are gone, with only Croatoancarved on a post

  • They are called the ‘Lost Colony’

King James’ Charter

  • Under King James I, England tries again to settle the Atlantic Coast

  • Charter rights to establishing colonies were transferred from Raleigh to the London Company & the Plymouth Company in 1606

  • These were join-stock companies: investors pooled money to fund and govern the colony and split any profits

The Jamestown Colony

First Settlers and Captain Smith

  • 1606: 100 men arrive at the James River under the London Company and built Jamestown

  • The location was not ideal; swampy and in the middle of the Powhatan Confederacy

  • The settlers succumbed to malaria and dysentery and many were gentry who refused to work

  • By January 1608, only 38 men remained

  • Captain John Smith became the leader of Jamestown and imposed military discipline in the colony

  • he was able to trade for food with the local tribe and had even been saved from being executed by Pocahontas, the chief’s daughter

  • conditions improved in the colony, but John Smith was forced to return to England after being burned in a powder accident

The Starving Time and Tobacco

  • London Company sent more settlers in 1609, offering free passage to anyone willing to work for seven years

  • The winter of 1609-1610 was the worst in the colony, called the starving time: many died from Indian raids and starvation

  • John Rolfe saves the colony by experimenting with the cultivation of tobacco

  • 1613: Rolfe secures peace between Jamestown and the Algonquians by marrying Pocahontas

  • 1622: relations with the natives deteriorate after Powhatan and Pocahontas die

  • Settlers were taking increasing amounts of land for tobacco cultivation , triggering an attack by the Powhatans

  • Many, including Rolfe, died and the crown revoked the Virginia Company’s charter, but the colony survived

Virginia Grows and Changes

The Headright System and the House of Burgesses

  • 1618: Virginia Company begins offering headrights: 50 acres of land for each family member and servant or for any one else they paid passage for

  • Artisans and 100 singlewomen were also sent to make to colony more stable

  • By the 1640s, there were 8,000 settlers, 16,000 by 1650

  • 1619: formation of the House of Burgesses: membership went to white, landholding males

  • They had the power to raise taxes and make laws, but the laws could be vetoed by the governor who was appointed by the crown

  • This was the first legislature in America

Colonial Workers and Conflict

  • Indentured servants: majority of workers- they received passage to America and worked 4 to 7 years

  • at the end of service, they received clothes as well as tools or land

  • Men outnumbered women 3 to 1

  • 1619: Dutch ship arrives with 20 African slaves; by the late 1600s, slavery replaced indentured servants for cheap labor

  • Conflict increases between rich settlers in the east and poor settlers in the west dealing with high taxes and conflict with Natives

  • Governor William Berkeley refuses to aid settlers, hoping for good fur trading with the Natives

  • Bacon’s Rebellion: former indentured servants march on Jamestown, burning the city

  • the rebellion collapses when Bacon becomes ill and dies, but the House of Burgesses does open more land to settlement and slave labor increases

Chapter 2 Section 3: The Northern Colonies

Main Idea: The Pilgrims founded colonies in Massachusetts based on Puritan religious ideals, while dissent led to the founding of other New England colonies.

Puritans Flee to Freedom

Puritans and Separatists

  • Protestant Reformation led to establishment of the Church of England (Anglican Church)

  • Puritans felt the Anglican Church was still to Catholic, and wanted to ‘purify’ it further

  • Separatists wanted a complete break with the Anglican Church and were persecuted in England for their beliefs

Founding Plymouth Colony

  • 1608: group of Separatists move to the Netherlandsbut left several years later because they did not want their children to adopt Dutch customs

  • A group of merchants formed a joint-stock company and got land from the Virginia Company

  • 1620: 35 Puritans and 66 other settlers left on the Mayflower under the leadership of William Bradford

  • They were headed to the Hudson River but were blown off course and landed at Cape Cod

  • While on board, the 41 men signed the Mayflower Compact: created a government chosen by the consent of the governed and they would obey all laws made for the good of the group

  • Half of the group died in the first winter, the rest survived with aid from the Wampanoag Indians (especially Squanto)

  • The next year was so successful, the Pilgrims held a feast for their neighbors that we now commemorate as Thanksgiving

  • Bradford continued to serve as governor until his death in 16578

Dissent Among the Puritans

“A City Upon A Hill”

  • Success at Plymouth encouraged thousands of Puritans to move to New England

  • After getting funding from the Massachusetts Bay Company, they chose John Winthrop as their leader

  • They hoped to create a haven and example of Puritan living, what they called “a city upon a hill”

  • 11 ships and 700 people arrived in America in 1630 and grew quickly, establishing towns in Boston, Salem, and Concord

  • The Company created the Massachusetts General Court which had the ability to elect officers and make laws

  • Each town elected members to the court, which elected a council headed by Winthrop

  • Success led to the Great Migration: 20,000 English settlers arrive in New England between 1620 and 1643


  • Puritans were not tolerant of beliefs that differed from Church cannon

  • Society and government were closely linked to the church (attendance at church was mandatory, hard work was stressed)

  • Dissenters either voluntarily left, or were forced to leave the colony

  • Thomas Hooker- wanted government ‘chosen by all’ leaves to form Connecticut

  • 1639 they write the 1st written constitution: Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (gave voting rights to all free men, not just church members)

Rhode Island and New Hampshire

  • Roger Williams believed in religious tolerance (even for Jews) and wanted separation of church and state

  • he also believe the colony should pay the Native Americans for the land they settled on

  • He purchases land from the Narragansett Indians and forms a colony in Providence, Rhode Island

  • Anne Hutchinson causes an uproar when she claims people can read and understand the Bible for themselves without the input of a minister

  • She was banished and went to Rhode Island

  • Her brother-in-law left Massachusetts in 1679 to found a colony in modern New Hampshire; it was a royal colony: under the control of the king

Witchcraft Trials in Salem

  • 1692 girls in Salem Village begin acting strangely and claim they were bewitched

  • Belief in witchcraft was common in the 1600s

  • Hysteria gripped the colony and eventually hundreds of people were arrested and 19 were executed as witches

  • Eventually the trials were condemned and remaining prisoners were set free

Life in New England

Education and Government

  • Puritans wanted their children to be able to read the Bible and established the first public schools in America

  • They also established the first colleges in New England: Harvard and Yale

  • Starting in the late 1600s, colonies most colonies were converted to royal colonies under the control of the English king

  • The town, with its school and meeting house, was the center of life in New England colonies

  • Town government was most relevant to people’s lives

  • At town meetings church members and land owners were allowed to vote for selectmen and delegates and speak about issues like taxes and roads

Relations with Native Americans

  • As colonies expanded, they had increasing conflict with Native Americans

  • As colonies became more self-sufficient, they were less likely to try to have good relations with surrounding tribes

  • Many Puritans viewed Natives as heathens that needed to be driven out or killed

  • 1637: Pequot War: Pequot in Connecticut are slaughtered by settlers and their Narragansett & Mohegan allies over trade with the Dutch

  • 1675: King Philip’s War: Native Americans led by Metacomet (or King Philip) attack colonial towns

  • Over 600 on both sides died and the tribe was all but wiped out

Chapter 2 Section 4: The Middle and Southern Colonies

Main Idea: Events in England during and after the English Civil War led to a new wave of colonization along the Atlantic coast south of New England.

A New Era of Colonization

Charles II and the Restoration

  • In order to pay back his supporters in the Civil War, King Charles II gave land grants in the new world called proprietary colonies (there were 4:N Pennsylvania, Carolina, New York and New Jersey)

  • These colonies were not ruled by investors or colonial legislators, but by their Lords Proprietors

  • Son of a supporter, William Penn forms Pennsylvania as a haven for Quakers and others suffering persecution

New Netherland becomes New York

  • Charles gives land to his brother James, Duke of York, ignoring an existing Dutch colony

  • After briefly struggling for control, England pushed out the Dutch in 1674

  • New York was a very diverse colony with English, Dutch, Scandinavian, German, and French settlers

  • The Duke later gave part of his land to two proprietors who named their colony New Jersey

  • After disputes over land titles, both New York and New Jersey became royal colonies in the early 1700s

New Southern Colonies

The Carolinas

  • 8 men were granted a charter that made them co-owners of Carolina (Latin for Charles)

  • Settlement was slow and some of the men gave up their claims

  • Eventually settlers arrived, but the Northern and Southern parts developed very differently

  • The Southern part had large plantations and ports like Charles Town; the North was dominated by small farmers and had no harbor

  • 1729: the proprietors sold their land to the crown and the king created two colonies: North Carolina and South Carolina


  • Georgia is created as a buffer zone between the Carolinas and Spanish-Florida

  • James Oglethorpe proposed making Georgia a colony for those thrown into debtors prison in England

  • he received a charter from King George II and founded Georgia in 1732 (it became a royal colony in 1751)

  • Originally the colony had strict rules about slavery, land ownership, and personal behavior, but they were gradually relaxed

Quakers Settle Pennsylvania/ The Founding of Maryland

The Quakers

  • The king wanted to get rid of the Quakers, who were unpopular in England

  • He encouraged Quakers to migrate to Pennsylvania

  • They believed in direct communication with God and had not ministers

  • They believed in equality of all men and women and were pacifists (refused to fight)

  • Because of its tolerance and wide adverting, thousands came from Germany and Scandinavia


  • 1638: small group of Swedish immigrants settle near modern Wilmington, DE but were overrun by the Dutch in 1655 and the English after that

  • William Penn later bought land from the Duke of York to give water passage to the Atlantic for Pennsylvania


  • George Calvert, Lord Baltimore received land from the king to create a haven for Catholics that his son named Maryland

  • 1649: Maryland’s colonial assembly passes the Toleration Act protecting the rights of all Christians to practice their religion

  • Login