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Chapter 25 Fungi. Fig. 31-1. Fig. 31-2. Reproductive structure. Hyphae. Spore-producing structures. 20 µm. Mycelium. Fig. 31-3. Cell wall. Cell wall. Nuclei. Pore. Septum. Nuclei. (a) Septate hypha. (b) Coenocytic hypha. Fig. 31-5-3. Key. Heterokaryotic stage. Haploid ( n ).

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slide3

Fig. 31-2

Reproductive structure

Hyphae

Spore-producing

structures

20 µm

Mycelium

slide4

Fig. 31-3

Cell wall

Cell wall

Nuclei

Pore

Septum

Nuclei

(a) Septate hypha

(b) Coenocytic hypha

slide8

Fig. 31-5-3

Key

Heterokaryotic

stage

Haploid (n)

Heterokaryotic

(unfused nuclei from

different parents)

PLASMOGAMY

(fusion of cytoplasm)

Diploid (2n)

KARYOGAMY

(fusion of nuclei)

Spore-producing

structures

Zygote

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Spores

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Mycelium

MEIOSIS

GERMINATION

GERMINATION

Spores

slide9

Fig. 31-6

2.5 µm

slide12

Fig. 31-7

10 µm

Parent

cell

Bud

slide13

Fig. 31-11

Hyphae

25 µm

Chytrids (1,000 species)

Zygomycetes (1,000 species)

Fungal hypha

Glomeromycetes (160 species)

Ascomycetes (65,000 species)

Basidiomycetes (30,000 species)

slide14

Fig. 31-13-4

Key

Haploid (n)

Heterokaryotic (n + n)

Diploid (2n)

PLASMOGAMY

Mating

type (+)

Gametangia with

haploid nuclei

Mating

type (–)

100 µm

Young

zygosporangium

(heterokaryotic)

Rhizopus

growing

on bread

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Dispersal and

germination

Zygosporangium

KARYOGAMY

Sporangia

Spores

Diploid

nuclei

Sporangium

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

MEIOSIS

Dispersal and

germination

Mycelium

50 µm

glomeromycetes
Glomeromycetes
  • The glomeromycetes (phylum Glomeromycota) were once considered zygomycetes
  • They are now classified in a separate clade
  • Glomeromycetes form arbuscular mycorrhizae
slide16

Fig. 31-15

2.5 µm

slide17

Fig. 31-16

Morchella esculenta,

the tasty morel

Tuber melanosporum, a truffle

slide18

Fig. 31-17-4

Conidia;

mating type (–)

Key

Haploid spores (conidia)

Haploid (n)

Dikaryotic (n + n)

Diploid (2n)

Dispersal

Germination

Mating

type (+)

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Hypha

PLASMOGAMY

Ascus

(dikaryotic)

Conidiophore

Dikaryotic

hyphae

Mycelia

Mycelium

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Germination

KARYOGAMY

Dispersal

Diploid nucleus

(zygote)

Eight

ascospores

Asci

Ascocarp

Four

haploid

nuclei

MEIOSIS

slide19

Fig. 31-18a

Maiden veil fungus

(Dictyphora), a

fungus with an odor like rotting meat

slide20

Fig. 31-18b

Puffballs emitting

spores

slide21

Fig. 31-18c

Shelf fungi, important

decomposers of wood

slide22

Fig. 31-19-4

Dikaryotic mycelium

PLASMOGAMY

Haploid mycelia

Mating

type (–)

Mating

type (+)

Gills lined

with basidia

Haploid mycelia

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Basidiocarp

(n+n)

Dispersal and

germination

Basidiospores

(n)

Basidium with

four basidiospores

Basidia

(n+n)

Basidium

Basidium containing

four haploid nuclei

KARYOGAMY

MEIOSIS

Key

Haploid (n)

Dikaryotic (n+n)

Diploid

nuclei

Diploid (2n)

Basidiospore

1 µm

slide25

Fig. 31-23a

A fruticose (shrublike) lichen

slide26

Fig. 31-23b

Crustose

(encrusting)

lichens

slide27

Fig. 31-23c

A foliose

(leaflike)

lichen

slide28

Fig. 31-24

Ascocarp of fungus

Soredia

Fungal

hyphae

Algal

layer

Algal cell

20 µm

Fungal hyphae

slide29

Fig. 31-25a

(a) Corn smut on corn

slide30

Fig. 31-25b

(b) Tar spot fungus on

maple leaves

slide31

Fig. 31-25c

(c) Ergots on rye

slide32

Fig. 31-26

Staphylococcus

Penicillium

Zone of

inhibited

growth

you should now be able to
You should now be able to:
  • List the characteristics that distinguish fungi from other multicellular kingdoms

2. Describe the life cycles of Rhizopus stolonifer and Neurospora crassa

3. Distinguish among zygomycetes, ascomycetes, and basidiomycetes

4. Describe some of the roles of fungi in ecosystems, lichens, animal-fungi mutualistic symbioses, food production, and medicine and as pathogens

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